- NRBC (Nucleated RBC) Blood Test: Normal & Abnormal Levels
- What are Nucleated RBCs?
- NRBC Blood Test
- Normal NRBC Levels
- Abnormal Nucleated RBC Levels
- 1. Low Oxygen
- 2. Spleen Dysfunction
- 3. Bone Marrow Damage
- 4. RBC Production Outside of the Bone Marrow (Extramedullary Hematopoiesis)
- 5. Other
- Ways to Decrease Nucleated RBCs
- Nagalase Testing – What is Nagalase and Why You Need to Know About It? – Medicine With Heart
- Nagalase Blood Test – Holistic Health and Cancer Clinic
- Test indications
- Blood test for early cancers
- Does earlier diagnosis of lung cancer mean longer survival?
- What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
- How does the test work?
- How well does the test work?
- Does the test work for other kinds of cancer?
- Will blood testing for lung cancer be introduced soon?
- What can I do to avoid lung cancer?
- Nagalase Blood Test
- What is Nagalase and why is it so important?
- The Nagalase Blood test exposes the cancer so we can “De-cloak ” it
- Increase Your T-Cell Army
- “Cancer cured for good?” – Gc-MAF and the miracle cure
- What’s the idea behind it?
- Clinical trials
- Nagalase Blood Test: Too Good To Be True?
- What is Nagalase?
- How Nagalase Became (In)Famous
- Low Nagalase: Schindler/Kanzaki Disease
- High Nagalase Levels
- 1) Viral Infections
- 2) Cancer
- 3) Autism
- 4) Lupus
- 5) Excess Alcohol Consumption
- Nagalase Testing – Too Good To Be True?
- GcMAF as a Cure-All
- Research Can’t Be Reproduced
- Retracted Papers and Questionable Methods
- No Success Stories
- Nagalase Blood Tests Marketed Today
- Normal Range
- Nagalase Prospects are Few
- Detect Cancer Years Earlier Using One Affordable Blood Test
- What Is Nagalase?
- How Does Nagalase Suppress Your Immune System?
- Tracking Nagalase
- Nagalase Provides True Early Detection
NRBC (Nucleated RBC) Blood Test: Normal & Abnormal Levels
Nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) are immature red blood cells. Their presence in the bloodstream may indicate serious problems with RBC production or the bone marrow. Read on to learn more details about the presence of NRBC in your blood and what you can do about it.
What are Nucleated RBCs?
As red blood cells mature, they lose their nucleus – a part of the cell where DNA is stored. This enables them to carry more hemoglobin (and therefore more oxygen) and become highly flexible in shape.
Nucleated RBCs (NRBCs, normoblasts) are immature red blood cells (RBCs) that still contain a nucleus. Un the mature ones, nucleated red blood cells are unable to “squeeze” through portholes in the bone marrow and enter the circulation [1, 2, 3].
In healthy adults and children, NRBCs are usually only found in the bone marrow where they develop and mature. Their presence in the blood signifies the disruption of the blood-bone marrow barrier or increased red blood cell production outside the bone marrow [1, 2, 3].
However, NRBCs are common in the blood of fetuses and newborn babies, especially if they are experiencing growth retardation or a lack of oxygen [1, 2, 3].
NRBC Blood Test
NRBC test is often requested as a follow-up to abnormal results on a complete blood count (CBC) test in order to check for blood cell abnormalities. It may also be of use when a person has signs and symptoms of a condition affecting blood cell production or lifespan.
When automatic counters are used for CBC analysis, sometimes NRBCs can be misclassified as white blood cells. This can have negative consequences for patient treatment and outcome. In those cases, NRBCs in the blood film should be counted manually [4, 5, 6].
Normal NRBC Levels
Nucleated RBCs are quantified by counting the number of NRBCs per 100 white blood cells. Counts with even 1 NRBC/100 WBCs are to be reported, as only a few NRBCs can have dangerous implications .
A normal result is 0 NRBCs/100 WBCs.
Abnormal Nucleated RBC Levels
The presence of nucleated RBCs in the blood is known as normoblastemia—a complex condition with many possible causes .
The causes discussed below are commonly associated with elevated NRBCs, but a high lab result here is not sufficient to diagnose any of these conditions. Work with your doctor or other health care professional to determine an accurate diagnosis and appropriate strategies for improving your health.
1. Low Oxygen
Conditions that reduce the tissue oxygen supply (hypoxia) increase red blood cell production, which, in turn, leads to the presence of nucleated RBCs in the blood. These include [5, 1, 7]:
- Hemorrhage (blood loss)
- Anemia (hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia)
- Thalassemia major
- Severe lung disease
- Congestive heart failure
2. Spleen Dysfunction
Normally, spleen clears nucleated RBCs that escape from the bone marrow. Conditions that affect spleen function can result in the presence of nucleated RBCs in the blood. These include [5, 1]:
- Sickle cell anemia
- Essential thrombocytosis (a rare disorder with the overproduction of platelets)
- Hemolytic anemia
- Splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen)
3. Bone Marrow Damage
Conditions that damage the bone marrow can break down the blood-bone marrow barrier and release NRBCs and into the circulation. These conditions include [5, 8]:
- Blood cancers (e.g. preleukemia, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelofibrosis, and myelodysplasia)
- Neuroblastoma (cancer of immature nerve cells)
- Gaucher disease (the buildup of fats in certain organs, especially the spleen and liver)
- Collagen vascular disease (e.g. lupus)
- Fungal infections
- Sarcoidosis (inflammation in the lungs, skin, eyes, and lymph nodes)
4. RBC Production Outside of the Bone Marrow (Extramedullary Hematopoiesis)
Bone marrow damage or severe anemia can lead to the production of red blood cells in other organs such as the liver or spleen, which may release NRBCs into the circulation. Such conditions include [5, 9]:
- Myelophthisis (severe anemia resulting from bone marrow failure)
- Myeloid metaplasia (progressive bone marrow scarring)
- Chronic hemolytic anemia
- Polycythemia vera (excess RBC production)
Other causes of NRBC in the blood (normoblastemia) include [5, 1, 10]:
It is unclear why normoblastemia occurs in some of these, but the breakdown of the blood-bone marrow barrier may play a key role .
The presence of nucleated RBCs in the blood is associated with poor disease prognosis.
In two studies of over 600 intensive care patients, NRBCs in the blood were associated with increased mortality [3, 11].
Ways to Decrease Nucleated RBCs
The primary way to decrease nucleated RBCs is to address any underlying conditions. Work with your doctor to find an accurate diagnosis and to determine the appropriate next steps to improve your health.
We recommend strongly against making significant exercise, diet, or supplement changes without consulting a physician, as unexpected interactions may arise.
If you have anemia:
- Exercise: Moderate physical activity signals your body to increase red blood cell production in order to increase the oxygen supply to your muscles .
Avoid more intense and strenuous forms of exercise as these can damage and destroy red blood cells. This is one of the reasons that endurance athletes often have anemia .
- Make sure you are not nutrient deficient. Your body should have all the nutrients it needs to produce red blood cells (iron, vitamin B12, folate, copper, and vitamin B6).
- Reduce or stop your alcohol consumption. It decreases red blood cell production .
- Avoid NSAIDs such as ibuprofen – they can cause gut injuries and increase blood loss .
- Be cautious with antacids and other drugs that suppress stomach acid. These decrease iron levels, leading to low RBCs .
- Avoid products that contain lead, such as lead paints; it will help prevent red blood cell damage .
- Boost testosterone levels by getting good quality sleep, losing weight if you are overweight, and exercising regularly [18, 19, 20, 21].
According to some studies, these supplements may help with anemia:
Note that the supplements above have not been approved by the FDA. The data supporting their use is still considered insufficient, so talk to your doctor about them to make the best possible decisions to support your health.
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The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease.
Information is shared for educational purposes only.
You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.
Nagalase Testing – What is Nagalase and Why You Need to Know About It? – Medicine With Heart
by Dr. Miles Nichols
Nagalase is an enzyme found in the body and it has a role to play in breaking down the sugar we take in our food into other forms that can be utilized in the body in the struggle for survival.
However, nagalase is a short form for the incredibly long scientific name it represents: N-acetyl-Galactosaminidase. Nagalase has specialized in splitting off a specific sugar molecule from other large molecules. This molecule is known as N-acetyl galactosamine.
Nagalase splits this molecule from Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) that can be found in serum and is also known as Gc-protein.
The important thing about nagalase is that the scientific community has discovered nagalase levels are increased in patients with tumors (cancer) 1, 2. Furthermore, nagalase depresses the activity of the immune system, and this activity helps cancer cells to grow and tumors to metastasize (spread) to other body organs and sites.
How does nagalase increase tumor cell formation and spread?
Nagalase causes immunosuppression by preventing the formation of a molecule that stimulates the immune system. This molecule is known as Gc-MAF and is derived from Gc-protein 3, 4. Gc protein has three sugar molecules, N-acetyl galactosamine, galactose and sialic acid.
Galactose and sialic acid are removed from Gc-protein and the resultant molecule has been observed to have an effect on macrophages, which are immune cells that go around the body destroying invading microorganisms and consuming abnormal cells (for example cancer cells). It has been postulated that Gc-MAF is important in defending against tumor cell growth and spread5, 6.
By preventing the formation of Gc-MAF, nagalase leaves the body without a vital defense structure in place, making it more vulnerable to cancer.
Is there a link between Nagalase and chronic viruses?
Increased nagalase activity has been linked with chronic viruses such as influenza viruses, and it has been established that nagalase activity resides on the outer envelope protein (Hemagglutinin) of the influenza virion. Nagalase levels are also increased in people living with HIV, as it is part of the gp120 protein of HIV.
What is the Nagalase test?
A test for nagalase levels is a quantitative test that seeks to establish the prevailing levels of nagalase in your body. When your levels are found to be within the normal range, then you are healthy and the chances of developing cancer are relatively low.
However, if your levels are above the normal range for the lab conducting the test, then this means that there has been increased tumor cell activity in your body. This is a harbinger for cancer.
Nagalase levels can also increase in other diseases, but this increase has mostly been described for cancer.
Testing will involve taking a blood sample from you and isolating the enzyme from the sample. Enzyme activity of the enzyme will then be determined quantitatively.
It is also important to note that when your nagalase levels have declined from a previous high level, this could be interpreted as a success in the current therapeutic intervention being undertaken. This is especially so if the doctors managing you have been monitoring Gc-MAF therapy.
Gc-MAF therapy involves introducing synthetic (artificially produced) Gc-MAF into the body in order to stimulate the immune system. This works because the artificial Gc-MAF cannot be inactivated by the nagalase enzyme in your blood.
The Nagalase test is a great blood test for finding very early signs of cancer and/or chronic viral infections, and this will improve chances of early diagnosis and management.
Nagalase Blood Test – Holistic Health and Cancer Clinic
The test measures the activity of an enzyme α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) in blood.
Nagalase is an extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme that is secreted by cancerous cells in the process of tumor invasion. It is also an intrinsic component of the envelope protein of various virions, such as HIV and the influenza virus. Thus, it is also secreted from virus-infected cells
Nagalase deglycosylates the vitamin D3-binding protein DBP (also known as Gc-protein). Gc-protein, which contains three sugars, is the precursor for the major macrophage-activating factor (MAF). By complete deglycosylation, Gc-protein can no longer be converted to MAF.
Normally, MAF is produced from the Gc-protein by sequential removal of the galactose and sialic acid without touching the remaining sugar N-acetylgalactosamine.
Macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen presentation is the first step in the immune development cascade. Lost precursor activity, therefore, leads to immune suppression.
Increased nagalase activity has been detected in the blood of patients with a wide variety of cancers cancer of the prostate, breast, colon, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, testis, uterus, and ovary, mesothelioma, melanoma, fibrosarcoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and various leukemias 1,3,4 .
For various types of tumors, various levels of nagalase activity were found 7 . It appears that the secretory capacity of individual tumor tissue varies among tumor types depending upon tumor size, staging, and the degree of malignancy or invasiveness 7 .
Increased nagalase activity has not been detected in the blood of healthy individuals 1 .
Nagalase activity is directly proportional to viable tumor burden 1,2 . Studies correlating nagalase levels with tumor burden suggest that the measurement of this enzyme can diagnose the presence of cancerous lesions below levels detectable by other diagnostic means 1 .
In research studies, nagalase activity decreased to near tumor-free control levels one day after surgical removal of primary tumors from cancer patients, suggesting that the half-life of nagalase is less than 24 hours 1,6 .
The short half-life of nagalase is valuable for prognosis of the disease during various therapies 1,5 .
Nagalase in blood is a sensitive test for monitoring the efficacy of therapy in cancer and certain viral infections, including HIV and recently HSV-1/2.
Because of the short half-life of nagalase, the method is suitable for monitoring various types of therapy.
The great sensitivity of the test may help the physician / oncologist in obtaining a better understanding of the therapy and to fine-tune the treatment.
NOTE: The values may be affected by certain drugs used in the five days preceding blood draw. Drug use must be indicated on the Questionnaire submitted with the Requisition Form.
- Korbelik M, VR Naraparaju, N Yamamoto. The value of serum alpha-N- acetylgalactosaminidase measurement for the assessment of tumour response to radio- and photodynamic therapy. Br J Cancer, 77:1009-1014, 1998.
- Reddi AL et al. Serum alpha-N- acetylgalactosaminidase is associated with diagnosis/prognosis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer Lett, 158:61-64, 2000.
- Yamamoto N and M Urade. Pathogenic significance of alpha-N- acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. Microbes Infect, 7:674-681, 2005.
- Yamamoto N. Pathogenic significance of alpha-N- acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the envelope glycoprotein gp160 of human immunodeficiency virus Type I. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 22:262-271, 2006.
- Yamamoto N, H Suyama, N Yamamoto. Immunotherapy for prostate cancer with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). Transl Oncol, 1:65-72, 2008.
- Yamamoto N et al. Therapeutic efficacy of vitamin D3-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor for prostate, breast and colon cancers. Cancer Res Proc, 38:31, 1997.
Blood test for early cancers
A new blood test may have the potential to detect a tumour before it arrives, according to a recent article in the Eureka scientific supplement from The Times. As part of a special edition exploring the future of cancer treatment, the magazine outlined the principles behind the EarlyCDT-Lung test, which looks for an immune system response to the development of lung tumours.
While several factors contribute to cancer being a killer, the speed and accuracy of diagnosis are seen to be major factors in determining an individual’s chances of survival.
As such, the article speculates about the options earlier detection might provide in the future and whether similar blood tests could be used to screen for other cancers.
The test has been developed by the company Oncimmune, which is affiliated with the University of Nottingham.
Does earlier diagnosis of lung cancer mean longer survival?
The rate of survival for people with lung cancer is low, with Cancer Research UK estimating that less than 10% of adults with lung cancer survive five years beyond their diagnosis. People who are diagnosed at the earlier stages of lung cancer have longer life expectancies than those with more advanced lung cancer.
For example, 58-78% of people with the earliest stage (stage 1A) of the most common type of lung cancer (called non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC) are expected to live for five years or longer.
In contrast, only 2-13% of people diagnosed with the most advanced stage of NSCLC (stage 4), where the cancer has spread, are expected to survive for five years or longer.
Cancer Research UK says that the reason that overall lung cancer survival rates are low is because most cases (over two-thirds) are diagnosed at a later stage in the disease, when treatments are no longer able to cure the condition. The charity reports that if more lung cancers were diagnosed earlier, survival rates would be significantly improved.
What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
The symptoms of lung cancer are:
- persistent coughing
- changes in a long-term cough
- being short of breath
- coughing up phlegm (sputum) with signs of blood in it
- aches or pains when breathing or coughing
- loss of appetite
- tiredness (fatigue)
- weight loss
Often, symptoms do not occur until the cancer is relatively advanced, and has spread through much of the lungs or to other parts of the body.
How does the test work?
The test works by detecting antibodies that the body’s immune system has produced in response to proteins produced by cancer cells. The theory is that testing for these antibodies can detect lung cancers before they become symptomatic or large enough to be detected by conventional scans.
How well does the test work?
One recent study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Annals of Oncology, assessed the performance of the test in 655 people with lung cancer (cases) and 655 people without cancer (controls) who had been matched in terms of age, sex and smoking history.
This study found that the test correctly detected 34-37% of lung cancers, and correctly identified 90-91% of people who did not have cancer.
This means that the test did not pick up 63-66% of lung cancers in this sample, and that around 9-10% of people who did not have lung cancer tested positive.
The Times reports that further research on the test is to be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting in Chicago this month.
Does the test work for other kinds of cancer?
The story in The Times reports that the tests “can pick out breast cancer markers up to four years earlier than a mammogram might indicate a suspect nodule”.
They also say that similar blood tests for ovarian, upper stomach, colon and liver cancers are planned.
For each of these cancers the tests will have to be assessed to find out how well they work: primarily, how many cancers they detect, how many they miss and how many false positives they produce.
If the test is shown to perform well as a means of cancer detection, then researchers will have to go on to show that using the test can result in improved clinical outcomes for patients before screening programmes could be considered.
Will blood testing for lung cancer be introduced soon?
The Times reports that the EarlyCDT-Lung test will be available in the UK by 2011. The newspaper says that the test is initially being made available in private healthcare groups, and will cost about £209.
Before the test could be used in the NHS, the evidence regarding the balance of benefits and harms of the test would need to be considered, and it would be important to see whether the screening test improves outcomes when used in real life clinical practice. The best way to establish this would be through randomised controlled trials comparing screening against usual practice.
Speaking to The Times, Professor Sir Mike Richards, the National Cancer Director of the Department of Health seemed enthusiastic but rightly cautious about the potential benefits of the test: “Has it yet been proven to the extent that we would want to extend it to a screening programme? Not yet. But now that the test is shortly to become available [privately] we have to think about doing a wider programme to show that it can save the lives as we hope it might”.
It is also worth remembering that other ideas for lung cancer screening, such as frequent screening with chest X-rays, have seemed good at the time, but have later been shown to be potentially harmful.
A systematic review showed that deaths from lung cancer were actually increased by 11% in the group frequently screened using X-rays. This suggests that a cautious, well-researched approach to the introduction of such new screening technologies is needed.
The potential harms of screening tests include the risk of false positives, which can lead to a person undergoing unnecessary investigations and psychological distress.
Such advances in diagnostic techniques are important in helping to improve our ability to detect cancer early. However, as for all medical interventions, the potential benefits will need to be weighed up against the potential harms, and the test only offered in circumstances where the balance suggests an overall benefit.
What can I do to avoid lung cancer?
The main risk factor for lung cancer is smoking, so the best way to avoid lung cancer is to stop smoking.
Analysis by Bazian
Edited by NHS Website
Nagalase Blood Test
The Nagalase blood test helps us, at Reno Integrative Medical Center, to identify the activity of an enzyme called Nagalase that helps cancer cells hide from the immune system.
What is Nagalase
and why is it so important?
The first thing to understand is that there is one and only one reason cells grow into cancer. It is a lack of sufficient oxygen to a certain subset of the 210 different types of cells known to make up the human body. This is called hypoxia.
There may be a thousand things that cause hypoxia, but there is no cancer cell which does not commence and live by hypoxia.
To survive and keep producing energy, these cells must switch over to glycolysis alone as the source of their energy.
At exactly the same time as fermentation starts, the now sickened, dysfunctional cells must also start protecting themselves from the immune system. They do this by producing a protective enzyme called alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or Nagalase for short.
The Nagalase enzyme has the ability to completely shut down the activity of the localized immune macrophage cell, whose job it is to destroy any cell that has been harmed or is not functioning normally.
It effectively “cloaks” the cancer cells from detection by the immune system. This is the reason that someone can have a strong functioning immune system and still be growing a tumor.
The Nagalase blood test is a good way to check the progress of treatment.
The Nagalase Blood test
exposes the cancer so we can “De-cloak ” it
A test measuring the level of nagalase in the blood can be used to provide a measure of progress during treatment for cancer. Remember, the more cancer cells there are, the higher the fermentation process is. This causes the cancer cells to “cloak” or hide their activity from the immune system by producing Nagalase.
There are some other conditions that can cause a false high reading on this test so experience with it is necessary to properly interpret the results.
If a person has had a recent viral infection or if they have recently started a heavy exercise program, it can skew the results. The reason is that this is exactly what our normal muscle cells do when overworked and the oxygen level falls below a level necessary for respiration. They will produce the enzyme.
Increase Your T-Cell Army
The way to cut down, or eventually stop, the production of this enzyme is by the use of a compound called Salicinium. It is a natural plant extract that enters only into cancer cells and reacts in such a way as to shut down the production of nagalase.
When this happens, the macrophage and natural killer cells in the immune system can then recognize the cancer cells as being abnormal and attack and kill them. We have ways of naturally boosting the immune system and increasing the t-cells so that when the de-cloaking occurs, your body is ready to act.
This is the reason it is so very important to get and keep a strong, balanced immune system even as the treatments are working to kill the abnormal cells.
Our treatments are all designed to stop cancer cells from flourishing. It is a synergistic collaboration of many factors:
“Cancer cured for good?” – Gc-MAF and the miracle cure
Note: This post has been updated as several research papers about Gc-MAF have been retracted. We will continue to update this post as more information becomes available. Last update 05/10/15.
As an organisation dedicated to beating cancer, we have a deep-rooted interest in any new research developments that could lead to new, more effective treatments for the disease.
So when we received an enquiry from a supporter about an article entitled “Cancer cured for good” by Bill Sardi and Timothy Hubbell* we were intrigued.
The article talks about research by Nobuto Yamamoto in the US, looking at a protein called Gc-MAF (aka GcMAF).
His published studies appear to show that injections of very small amounts of Gc-MAF can “cure” people with breast, bowel and prostate cancer.
According to the article, “It works 100% of the time to eradicate cancer completely, and cancer does not recur even years later.” Could this be the so-called ‘cure for cancer’ that we’ve been searching for all these years?
Sadly – as with so many things in life – if it sounds too good to be true it probably is. Major questions are now being raised about Gc-MAF (for example, this investigation by the BBC) and the companies that sell it, and it is not licensed in the UK to treat any disease. [Updated KA 01/10/15]
Let’s explore a bit further.
What’s the idea behind it?
Dr Yamamoto studies the immune system – the highly complex network of cells that helps to keep us healthy.
The cells of the immune system – white blood cells – fight bacterial and viral infections because they can recognise and attack these ‘foreign’ invaders .
But they’re not so good at tackling cancer, since tumours grow from our own cells and have clever mechanisms to ’cloak’ them from immune attack.
Macrophages (meaning “big eaters” in Greek) are an important type of white blood cell. They patrol the body, eating up foreign invaders and dead cells. They also help to alert other immune cells to the presence of infections.
Macrophages can be stirred into action by a small sugar-coated protein (glycoprotein) called Gc-MAF, short for Gc Macrophage Activating Factor, which is produced by the body.
But it’s thought that the production of Gc-MAF is blocked by an enzyme called Nagalase (alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase), produced by many cancers.
This is one of the mechanisms that helps tumours evade the immune system.
Yamamoto’s theory is that injecting cancer patients with Gc-MAF should activate their macrophages to fight the cancer. He tested it back in 1997 in a paper published in the journal Cancer Research, showing that injecting Gc-MAF into mice transplanted with cancer cells could improve their survival from around 16 days to around 35.
But the treatment did not ‘cure’ the cancer, as the cancer cells continued to multiply, eventually killing the animals.
However, there are questions about the science underpinning the idea that Gc-MAF can treat cancer.
For example, other researchers have found no differences in the levels of Gc-MAF between cancer patients and healthy people – and the levels they do find are far higher than the very small doses proposed to work by Yamamoto.
It’s hard to see exactly how this finding fits with the idea of how the treatment is supposed to work, and it doesn’t support the use of Gc-MAF as a treatment for cancer. [Updated KA 05/10/2015]
Fast-forward a few years, to the publication of three papers detailing the results of clinical trials of Gc-MAF carried out by Yamamoto, testing the treatment on patients with breast, bowel and prostate cancer.
Note: The breast cancer paper (Yamamoto et al Int J Cancer 2008) has now been retracted,
Nagalase Blood Test: Too Good To Be True?
Nagalase is advertised as an accurate early cancer detection method. Labs that offer this test state that this enzyme rises during the very early stages of cancer because cancer cells use it to suppress the immune system and augment cancer cell growth.
Does this test show as much promise as advertised? Read on to learn more about nagalase and the controversial research surrounding it and decide for yourself.
What is Nagalase?
Nagalase (α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme that breaks down certain glycoproteins (sugars attached to protein) and glycolipids (sugars attached to lipids/fats). It has a very important role and is essential for the body to function normally .
We know this because people who lack this enzyme develop a disease called Schindler or Kanzaki disease .
How Nagalase Became (In)Famous
Nagalase can suppress the immune system by suppressing the activity of some very important immune cells called macrophages. Macrophages are white blood cells also called the “Pac-Men” because they devour invading microbes and altered cancer cells.
Specifically, nagalase breaks down the Gc protein (known as vitamin D3 binding protein or VDBP), which inhibits the production of the Gc Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), .
A research group has found that invading viruses and cancer cells use nagalase to infect the host and spread [3, 4, 5, 6].
The logic is as follows: cancer cells and viruses (such as HIV and influenza) release nagalase. Nagalase blocks the production of GcMAF, thereby preventing the activation of macrophages (pac-men) and basically hindering your immune system from doing its job. With a deficient immune system, infections and cancer can develop unchecked.
The same research group has developed a treatment the GcMAF molecule. This treatment will activate your macrophages and boost your immune system, fighting off cancer and HIV. This treatment has also been implicated in autism, autoimmune diseases, and linked to a number of conspiracy theories [5, 7].
Low Nagalase: Schindler/Kanzaki Disease
Here is a fact: if your nagalase is not working (mainly due to genetic mutations) glycolipids and glycopeptides, which are normally broken down by this enzyme, accumulate in your tissues. This results in Schindler disease, a metabolic disorder that causes issues with the nervous system. It can manifest in 3 different ways :
- Type I: a severe infantile neurodegenerative disorder; children don’t survive past early childhood
- Type II: adult-onset disease that leads to mild cognitive impairment and skin lesions (also known as Kanzaki disease)
- Type III: an intermediate form; people with this type display different symptoms including seizures, autism, and/or heart muscle disease
Unfortunately, there is no treatment for this disease [8, 1].
High Nagalase Levels
Studies suggest that nagalase levels can increase in various diseases.
1) Viral Infections
Nagalase levels can increase during viral infections; this can suppress the immune system response. Influenza A and HIV patients may have increased nagalase activity in their blood [3, 4].
Since cancer cells release this enzyme, people with prostate, cervical, breast, and other cancers may have high levels of nagalase in their blood [5, 6, 9, 10, 11]. The more advanced the cancer, the higher the nagalase levels will be.
A study suggests that nagalase activity may be increased in children with autism .
Another study reported that compared to healthy people, autoimmune patients with lupus have higher nagalase activity .
5) Excess Alcohol Consumption
Finally, in an observational study of 100 people, alcohol-dependent individuals had significantly elevated nagalase levels compared to healthy individuals. After detoxification therapy, their levels decreased back to normal .
Nagalase Testing – Too Good To Be True?
Nagalase testing and GcMAF treatment sound great, especially in the context of cancer. But are they too good to be true? There are several red flags associated with the research.
GcMAF as a Cure-All
Here is the logic that the main research team used.
Nagalase suppresses the immune system, mainly by suppressing the production of GcMAF, the protein which activates our “Pac-Men” white blood cells. Hence, if we just give people GcMAF, their “Pac-Men” cells will become active and destroy all infections and cancer cells.
The team used the results of their studies to support the development of the miracle drug GcMAF. They have published research showing that treatment with GcMAF is effective for:
- Various cancers [5, 11, 6] – most of the patients reported as cured
- HIV  – patients with HIV reported to be cured
- Multiple Sclerosis  – GcMAF improves motor function
- Chronic fatigue 
- Autism  – GcMAF potentially helps with the suppressed immune system
Research Can’t Be Reproduced
Most of nagalase and GcMAF research has been done by a single person – Dr. Nobuto Yamamoto and a couple of associates in the 90s.
If Dr. Yamamoto and his colleagues had really uncovered such a golden ticket, other researchers would have followed, if not for funding, then for fame.
This hasn’t happened, but not because of a lack of trying. It turns out, other scientists have had trouble reproducing the results .
If something works, it should work no matter who performs the research.
Unfortunately, when scientists fail to show results, excitement dissolves and most journal publishers have no interest in the dull negative data. Therefore, it’s reasonable to assume that many have tried working with nagalase over the years and none succeeded.
Retracted Papers and Questionable Methods
There are serious issues with Nagalase and GcMAF research. In fact, several of the articles published by Dr. Yamamoto have since been retracted, including the articles about HIV, breast, and colon cancer [7, 17, 18]. Retractions were due to scientific misconduct.
Here are a couple of issues with these and their other not yet retracted papers:
- They involved an extremely small number of patients, often in single digits.
- Patients in the GcMAF studies also received standard cancer treatment, such as surgery, chemo, or radiation therapy. This makes it hard if not impossible to tell if the patients were cured by the new drug or the standard treatment.
- Studies didn’t check the presence or progression of tumors by any other markers except for nagalase. There is no proof that GcMAF actually had any effect on cancer – there is only proof that it decreased nagalase levels .
- There is no proof that GcMAF works on a molecular level – no studies involving immune cells or cytokines. Instead, authors make unfounded claims and falsely cite other studies .
- Research bodies, co-authors, and sponsors cited in these studies are nonexistent or were included without approval .
- These studies have no controls. This is a red flag for any kind of research.
No Success Stories
Nagalase studies date back to the ’90s and GcMAF studies to the ’00s with no recent quality research. It stands to reason that if people treated a decade ago have experienced a miraculous recovery, they would make this known and share it with others desperately in need of a cure.
But when you search for nagalase and GcMAF on the web, you will find doctors and companies recommending them. What you won’t find are actual people who’ve been treated with their success stories.
European organizations such as the UK Cancer Research and the Anticancer Fund warn against people and companies selling GcMAF .
Nagalase Blood Tests Marketed Today
Labs and doctors that advocate for this test say that nagalase levels are directly proportional to tumor burden. They suggest that this test can discover tumors before they are detectable by other means .
However, although it’s said that this test is accurate for early cancer detection (this is the test’s main selling point), this makes no sense if this enzyme also increases in viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or simply when alcohol is consumed. If it doesn’t significantly increase solely due to cancer, nagalase can’t be a cancer screening method.
Some labs that have previously offered this test have since discontinued it, citing it as unreliable and not universally reflecting tumor burden.
If you do want to test your levels, by all means, you can do so. But don’t panic if the results come back elevated. Your immune system is often fighting various infections.
Studies report ranges from 0.23 to 0.39 nmol/min/mg in healthy individuals and up to 8 nmol/min/mg in cancer patients .
Note that other study groups had issues reproducing these ranges .
According to some research labs, normal levels are below 0.95 nmol/min/mg .
Nagalase Prospects are Few
While nagalase and GcMAF may have a role in the immune system, the issue is that the studies involving them were seriously flawed.
At the moment, a company in Japan offers GcMAF treatment and another company in Israel has purchased the rights for developing GcMAF as a drug.
It’s not impossible that we will hear more about nagalase and GcMAF in the future, but the chances are slim.
Detect Cancer Years Earlier Using One Affordable Blood Test
With cancer rates rising every year, it becomes more important than ever that we detect cancer cells as early as possible.
This is why the Nagalase Blood Test is one everyone should know about! The beauty of this test is that it is super sensitive…it can detect cancer when it is at the cellular stage instead of the tumor stage.
It can take 5-8 years for a tumor to develop and be seen on an x-ray or in blood work. This Nagalase test puts time on your side.
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) was developed by Dr. N. Yamamoto. He has spent decades studying and researching the mechanics of cancer cell growth on our immune system.
He discovered that all cancer patients had a suppressed immune system that was disabled by the Nagalase enzyme produced by cancer cells. The more cancer cells, the weaker the immune system.
He also found that testing Nagalase levels in the blood could serve as a way to measure the progress of any type of therapy that was being administered…the lower the Nagalase, the better the prognosis.
What Is Nagalase?
Nagalase is a protein made by all cancer cells and viruses (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, influenza, herpes, Epstein-Barr virus, and others). Nagalase causes immunodeficiency.
Nagalase blocks production of GcMAF, thus preventing the immune system from doing its job. Without an active immune system, cancer and viral infections can grow unchecked.
As an extremely sensitive marker for all cancers, it provides a powerful system for early detection.
How Does Nagalase Suppress Your Immune System?
a stealth bomber, the Nagalase enzyme synthesized in and released from a cancer cell or a virus particle pinpoints the GcMAF production facilities on the surface of your T and B lymphocytes and then wipes them out with an incredibly precise bomb.
How precise? Let me put it this way: Nagalase locates and attacks one specific two-electron bond located at, and only at, the 420th amino acid position on a huge protein molecule (DBP), one of tens of thousands of proteins, each containing millions of electrons. This is selectively taking out a park bench in a major city from six thousand miles away.
More astonishing, if that is possible, Nagalase never misses its target. There is no collateral damage.
GcMAF is a cell-signaling glycoprotein that talks to macrophages, enabling them to rapidly find, attack, and kill viruses and cancer cells.
By activating macrophages, GcMAF triggers a cascade that activates the entire immune system.
Blockage of GcMAF production by Nagalase brings all this wonderful anti-cancer and anti-viral immune activity to a screeching halt, allowing cancer and infections to spread.
Nagalase emasculates the GcMAF precursor protein (DBP) by knocking off its three sugar molecules. One quick whack by Nagalase and the DBP protein that would have become a GcMAF molecule now limps off into the sunset, permanently disfigured and disabled. With one simple, swift maneuver, Nagalase has brought the entire immune system to its knees.
The malignant and viral entities that make Nagalase are not normally present, so its appearance is a big deal from a diagnostic perspective.
When Nagalase shows up, even in very small amounts, we have the earliest glimpse of a new cancer or viral infection. The old adage, “Where there’s smoke, there’s fire” applies here.
A positive Nagalase test notifies us that a cancer (or a nasty virus) lurks within.
Nagalase appears in the blood stream when a nascent cancer is just a minute cluster of abnormal cells, long before conventional diagnostic methods can detect it. Through blood testing, we can find this red flag, even when present at exceedingly low levels, which is exactly why it is such a useful screening tool!
Nagalase Provides True Early Detection
The Nagalase test can detect cancer 8 to 10 years before it can be seen as a tumor on our most sensitive and current cancer marker/blood tests in use today.
Again, thankfully this test is not so expensive, making it one that we could potentially add to our annual blood work as a screening tool! Should your Nagalase levels come back high, further testing could be done to eliminate the possibility that it’s caused by virus versus cancer.
Ultimately, your physician could even order the ONCOblot®, a more detailed and expensive test that can not only detect cancer earlier, but also narrow it down to particular types of cancer.
To order a test kit, have your physician visit www.hdri-usa.com to order a test kit. The Nagalase blood test only runs $85, so I believe it’s very reasonable to include this in your annual blood work as a screening tool.