- Bovine Colostrum
- Diseases and Conditions
- Supplement and Food Interactions
- Bovine Colostrum 101: The Gut-Healing Supplement That Should Be On Your Radar
- What is Colostrum? Definition + Side Effects & Dosage
- Mechanisms of Action
- Hyperimmune Colostrum
- drug profile
- ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY
- MECHANISM OF ACTION
- INDICATIONS AND USAGE
- ADVERSE REACTIONS
- DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
- HOW SUPPLIED
- Everything You Need To Know About Colostrum + Its Gut Healing Benefits
- What You Need to Know About Colostrum Supplements
- Cardioprotective Effects of Bovine Colostrum Against Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
Discover How to Eat, Exercise, and Supplement Right
For Your DNA
Bovine colostrum is the milk secreted by cows during the first few days after giving birth. Newborns have immature digestive and immune systems, so the enzymes, antibodies, and growth factors that the colostrum provides promotes growth and fights disease.
The milk provides immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, protein, and other nutrients to the offspring.
Colostrum has become a popular nutritional supplement because it is a rich source of enzymes, antibodies, and growth factors not found in other dairy products.
Also known as: Bovine Colostrum, Bovine Immunoglobulin, Bovine Lacteal Compounds, Calostro, Colostrum Bovin, Colostrum Bovin Hyperimmune, Colostrum de Chèvre, Colostrum de Lait de Vache, Cow Milk Colostrum, Goat Colostrum, Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum, Immunoglobuline Bovine, Lait Colostral, Protogala
Diseases and Conditions
Some clinical research suggests bovine colostrum, milk secreted by cows during the first few days after giving birth, reduces the risk of upper respiratory tract infections in male athletes. It has also been shown to reduce infectious diarrhea and reduce the risk of the flu.
Bovine colostrum is used orally for:
- Stimulating the immune system
- Healing injuries
- Repairing nervous system damage
- Burning fat
- Building lean muscle
- Increasing stamina and vitality
- Improving athletic performance
- Elevating mood and sense of well-being
- Slowing and reversing aging
- As an antibacterial and antifungal agent
Bovine colostrum is also used for:
- Human papilloma virus (HPV)
- Treating AIDS-related diarrhea (FDA Orphan Drug Status)
- Diarrhea associated with graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplant
- Rotavirus diarrhea in children
Bovine colostrum is used topically for dental plaque, oral lichen planus, and Sjogren's syndrome. It is also used to treat dry eyes. Bovine colostrum is used rectally for treating colitis.
Bovine colostrum may be safe when used orally; there have been no reported cases of toxicity. It is possibly safe to use bovine colostrum rectally as 10% enema, but there is insufficient evidence on the safety of bovine colostrum when used topically.
Children may safely use bovine colostrum orally for up to 3 months. There is a lack of information on the safety of bovine colostrum on pregnant and breastfeeding women; best to avoid.
Bovine colostrum is generally well-tolerated; but possible side effects may include gastrointestinal upset, nausea and vomiting. There are cases of side effects experienced by individuals with HIV, such as nausea and vomiting, decreased serum hematocrit, and elevated liver function.
There are concerns that bovine colostrum may be contaminated with diseased animal organs, especially if it is obtained in countries where bovine spongiform encephalitis has been reported.
Supplement and Food Interactions
Taking hyperimmune bovine colostrum with food may lessen antibody activity because of the increase in stomic acid and digestive enzyme secretion.
For enhanced athletic performance, bovine colostrum protein ten grams daily to sixty grams twice daily has been used; however, these products are not available in the US.
For AIDS-related Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea, ten grams powder four times daily for twenty one days has been used.
For AIDS-related cryptosporidial and other infectious diarrhea, ten to twenty grams daily for ten days has been used.
For graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplant, ten grams per day for ten days has been used.
For rotavirus diarrhea in children ten grams, equivalent to 3.6 grams anti rotavirus antibodies, per day for four days has been used.
One hundred milliliters four times per day for four days has also been used.
For treating distal colitis, one hundred milliliters of a 10% enema of bovine colostrum two times daily has been used for four weeks.
Bovine colostrum is the milky fluid produced by mammals within the first few days after giving birth. Most nutritional colostrum preparations come from cows.
Interested in Learning Which
Supplements are Right for You?
Bovine Colostrum 101: The Gut-Healing Supplement That Should Be On Your Radar
Functional Medicine Practitioner By William Cole, D.C., IFMCP Functional Medicine Practitioner Dr. Will Cole, D.C.
, IFMCP, is a leading functional medicine expert who specializes in clinically investigating underlying factors of chronic disease and customizing a functional medicine approach for thyroid issues, autoimmune conditions, hormonal imbalances, digestive disorders, and brain problems.
Cole is also the bestselling author of Ketotarian and The Inflammation Spectrum.
Many moms are familiar with colostrum: the first form of milk produced from the mammary glands during the end of pregnancy and the first few days postpartum.
It’s amazing just how powerful our bodies are. Even though colostrum is produced in small amounts, it is extremely high in important nutrients making it easy for newborns to digest. Everything in colostrum helps the baby thrive in their first few days of life. No wonder it's often referred to as nature’s “first food.”
While it is biologically necessary for newborns, there is a lot of developing research on how colostrum and its vital nutrients can be beneficial throughout your entire life. No, I am not saying you need to go out and buy breast milk online.
(Yes, that’s a thing!) These days, supplements are usually derived from bovine colostrum: colostrum from cows.
Although bovine colostrum is slightly lower in nutrients than human colostrum, it still contains growth factors, immunoglobulin antibodies (IgA), and lactoferrin that support optimal health.
Even though it may be a seemingly new concept for us today, adults have used bovine colostrum for thousands of years, particularly in the field of ayurvedic medicine. And after all, in reality bovine colostrum is just a more nutrient-dense version of what we have been encouraged to drink for years—you know, to achieve strong bones and all that.
But if this still sounds a little bit too far out there for you, let’s nerd out a bit and look at all the fun research on the benefits of bovine colostrum, all of which I have seen firsthand in my functional medicine clinic. Maybe I’ll even convince you to add this supplement to your wellness routine.
The lactoferrin in bovine colostrum is an uber-powerful inflammation moderator. In fact, lactoferrin levels in our bodies rise during times of increased inflammation and can help bring down the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Doctors even look at lactoferrin levels in stool to help diagnose inflammatory bowel disease (IBS) and C. diff.
Years of stress, toxins, and unhealthy food can lead to leaky gut syndrome, a condition in which your intestinal lining is compromised and allows food particles and bacterial endotoxins known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to pass into the blood stream.
These invaders create a cascade of inflammation, increasing your risk for chronic health problems—autoimmune conditions included.
Studies have shown that lactoferrin can actually bind to endotoxins to neutralize their effect and reduce inflammation, especially in cases of psoriasis and other diseases associated with increased endotoxin activity.
Lactoferrin in colostrum not only acts as a prebiotic by stimulating the growth of good gut bacteria such as bifidobacterium and lactobacillus, but it has been shown to support the overall health of the gastrointestinal tract. Beyond just working to reduce inflammation in digestive disorders, lactoferrin actually promotes cell growth in the intestines to help to restore a damaged gut.
Due to its high level of growth factors insulin growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and antioxidants, bovine colostrum is a powerhouse for promoting muscle healing and growth. This makes it a great supplement for athletes.
Research has shown that the addition of bovine colostrum can reduce oxidative stress on and damage to muscles after exercise.
Further studies looking at the effect of colostrum on athletic men and women linked supplementation with increased athletic performance as well as increased lean muscle mass after just eight weeks.
Lactoferrin is responsible for helping regulate the defense response against pathogens by boosting immune-balancing T-cells and increasing natural white blood cells.
To examine just how powerful lactoferrin’s immune boosting abilities are, researchers in one study gave oral lactoferrin to mice with suppressed immune systems due to chemotherapy and lab-induced autoimmune conditions.
Afterward they found that their immune systems were not only strengthened, but the state of their autoimmune condition actually improved as well.
Additionally, lactoferrin is a natural antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral. It has the ability to inhibit pathogenic growth by actually binding the bacterial and viral cells in order to prevent their entry into the body’s cell.
Ultimately, this is just the tip of the iceberg for bovine colostrum's benefits.
As colostrum continues to create more buzz in the wellness world, there will undoubtedly be more studies done to examine the direct effects of supplementation for adults.
If you are interested in taking a colostrum supplement, look for ones derived from grass-fed cows or ones not treated with artificial growth hormones. As of now there is no recommended daily dosage or known side effects of supplementation.
Next up: Check out some more amazing benefits of colostrum.
William Cole, D.C., IFMCP Will Cole, D.C., IFMCP, is a leading functional-medicine expert and a Doctor of Chiropractic. He… Read More Food Should Be Functional & Make You Glow From The Inside Out Check out Functional Nutrition Program Our functional nutrition program will show you how to unlock the power of food to heal your body, prevent disease & achieve optimal health View the class William Cole, D.C., IFMCP Will Cole, D.C., IFMCP, is a leading functional-medicine expert and a… Read More More Health https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/bovine-colostrum-101 All News
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What is Colostrum? Definition + Side Effects & Dosage
Colostrum or the “first milk” is rich in nutrients, growth factors, and digestive enzymes. Read on to learn what it is, how to take advantage & what the side effects are.
Colostrum is a type of milk breastfeeding women produce just after giving birth. Aside from humans, as all breastfeeding mammals also produce this nourishing fluid. It is a diverse mix of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and more .
Newborns are vulnerable to diseases as their immune system is still forming. They especially benefit from the antibodies in colostrum, which boosts their immunity, aids immune development, and protects them against infection. Its composition is unique and loaded with growth factors that newborns require for muscle, bone, and cartilage growth and repair .
Colostrum is also known as “first milk”. It becomes “transitional milk” about 5 days after birth and “mature milk” about 2 weeks after. Mature milk is higher in fat, lactose, potassium, and calcium, while colostrum is higher in protein, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. Colostrum is also higher in growth factors such as IGF-1, IGF-2, and VEGF, and immune factors such as lactoferrin [3, 4].
Colostrum from other animals, especially from cows, is often consumed for its health benefits. Research shows that it may be helpful for a variety of issues, from enhancing exercise performance to boosting immunity and relieving “leaky gut”.
However, much less is known about its benefits in grown-ups than about its relevance for newborns. Another reason for skepticism is that many studies used a specialized type of colostrum (called hyperimmune colostrum), which is still not commercially available. The evidence to support the use of colostrum found in most supplements is less conclusive.
For more about the potential benefits of colostrum, check out this post.
Colostrum is filled with an incredible number of potentially beneficial components. The list is quite long, so bear with us… Colostrum contains all the following :
- Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
- IGF-1 and IGF-2
- Fibroblast growth factor 1 and 2 (FGF1 and FGF2)
- Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
- Lactoperoxidase, an antioxidant enzyme with antibacterial properties
- Plasmin, which removes blood clots 
- Lipoprotein lipase, which breaks down fats 
- Esterases, which break down drugs 
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Ribonucleases, which fight microbes and orchestrate the expression of your genetic material (helping new RNA mature and cleaning old RNA) [8, 9]
- Lysozyme, a destroyer of bacterial cell walls
- γ-Glutamyl transferase
Colostrum also contains:
- Immunoglobulins (especially IgG, IgA, and IgM), antibodies that protect against bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other harmful intruders.
- Lactoferrin, a protein that helps absorb iron and blocks bacterial growth 
- Enzyme inhibitors that help with the absorption of immunoglobulins and prevent their breakdown
- Nucleotides that make up DNA and help with iron absorption and gut repair
- Cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ) which can help immunity and promote sleep. However, these cytokines are also linked to chronic inflammation [11, 12, 13, 14, 15]
- Minerals (Calcium, Phosphate, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Manganese)
- Vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), Biotin, Niacin (Vitamin B3))
- Proteins (casein, whey, albumin) and fats
Mechanisms of Action
Diverse compounds interact to achieve the overall health benefits of colostrum. To sum it up, this nutrient-dense milk:
Boosts immunity by activating natural killer cells and stimulating IFN-gamma and IL-2 release [16, 17].
Acts as an antioxidant (suppressing harmful myeloperoxidase activity) .
May relieve diarrhea from HIV because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties, in addition to its ability to eliminate bacterial toxins .
May help overcome leaky gut and overheating from strenuous exercise (by raising heat shock protein levels and lowering Bax-alpha levels) .
Lactoferrin binds to NSAID painkillers, which blocks their activity and prevents stomach damage [21, 22].
May help with post-surgery recovery by repairing tissues, lowering gut inflammation, and eliminating bacteria and their toxins .
May be beneficial in diabetes potentially by raising IGF-1 levels, which can help the body use and store glucose more effectively .
Colostrinin, a protein mixture in colostrum, may help with Alzheimer’s by blocking the clustering of amyloid-beta and reducing their damage to brain cells [24, 25].
Hyperimmune colostrum is colostrum with extra antibodies toward a specific intruder, such as bacteria or viruses. It is made when vaccinations are given to pregnant cows, in response to which they produce specific additional antibodies. These antibodies get transferred to their colostrum, which may protect against specific infections in humans .
The FDA has approved hyperimmune colostrum for rare conditions (orphan drug status), but it is not available as a supplement, un regular colostrum.
Colostrum is derived from the pre-milk fluid produced from a cow's mammary glands with in the first few days after birth. Bovine colostrum is a source of antibodies, growth factors and nutrients which generates immunity against viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract.
The protein content of bovine colostrum has three to four times higher value that the protein level found in cow's milk. These include immunoglobulins and growth factors such as IGF-1, IGF-2, TGeta and EGF. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum contains a high level of IgG type, which is protective against rotaviruses.
ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY
Bovine colostrum can be used to stimulate immunity and works efficiently as an antiviral. There is also an ergogenic activity reported with bovine colostrum use.
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Hyperimmune bovine colostrum has antiviral activity the ability of specific immunoglobulins of the IgG type to react with virses in the gut.
Bovine colostrum contains a few immunostimulatory substances, including lactoferrin and colostrinin or proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) which is an iimmunomodulatory substance.
The combination of specific, as well as nonspecific, IgGs and such immunomodulatory factors as lactoferrin and PRP may afford general antimicrobial protection of the gastrointestinal tract.
It would be expected that immunoglobulins found in bovine colostrum would be rapidly inactivated by stomach acid and proteolytic action in the small intestine.
Enteric coating would protect the proteins from acid in the stomach but not from proteolytic activity in the small intestine. However, following ingestion of bovine colostrum, some immunoglobulins are found to be excreted intact in the feces after a few days.
This suggests that some immunoglobulins may be more resistant to degradation in the gut.
Growth factors and other peptides and proteins in bovine colostrum are most ly degraded by proteolytic enzymes and absorbed, distributed and metabolized in the same fashion as similar dietary substances.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Claims made for bovine colostrum are mostly unsubstantiated. Some preparations may have some antimicrobial effects. There is no credible evidence to support claims that bovine colostrum burns fat, builds muscle, speeds healing of injuries, regulates blood sugars, improves mood and fights depression or that it has anti-cancer effects.
Use of Bovine colostrum should be retricted among pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Bovine colostrum contains insulin- growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 levels are elevated in prostate, colorectal and lung cancer.
Recent studies have found that IGF-1 levels correlate with risk of prostate cancer and colorectal cancer in men, premenopausal breast cancer in women and lung cancer in both men and women.
Those with these types of cancer and those at risk for these cancers should exercise caution in the use of bovine colostrum supplements. It is unly that the amount of IGF-1 in bovine colostrum would be a problem, but caution should still be exercised.
Adverse reactions to bovine colostrum supplements are mainly gastrointestinal and include nausea and vomiting, bloating and diarrhea. Bovine colostrum is generally well tolerated.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Bovine colostrum is available in several forms, including tablets, powders, bars and liquid solutions. Dosage is variable. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum used for AIDS-associated diarrhea usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum is dosed at 10 grams four times daily for 21 days. This must only be taken under medical supervision.
Tablets — 1000 mg
* Direct Source:
PDR Health http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/bov_0082.shtml
Everything You Need To Know About Colostrum + Its Gut Healing Benefits
by Dr. Will Cole
Colostrum is something many moms are familiar with as it is the first milk that is produced from the mammary glands toward the end stage of pregnancy and the first few days following birth.
Our bodies are extremely powerful. Although the amount of colostrum produced is very small, its high nutrient content is second-to-none and easy for newborns to digest. Colostrum provides everything a baby needs to thrive in the beginning of life. In fact, it is often referred to as nature’s “first food.”
Bovine colostrum in adult diets
While we see it is biologically necessary for newborns, a lot of new research is coming out about the benefits of taking colostrum throughout your whole life.
No, you don’t need to buy breast milk online (yes, that is a thing!) instead, you can buy supplements that are derived from bovine colostrum (colostrum from cows).
Even though it is slightly lower in nutrients compared to human colostrum it still contains immunoglobulin antibodies (igA), lactoferrin, and growth factors which support optimal health.
While this may seem a little far fetched to us today, adults have been using bovine colostrum for thousands of years, specifically in ayurvedic medicine. And after all, bovine colostrum is simply a more nutrient-dense version of what we have been encouraged to drink for years – you know, to achieve strong bones and all that.
If this still seems a little bit outlandish, let’s geek out a bit and take a deeper look at all the exciting research on the benefits of bovine colostrum, all of which I have seen firsthand with my functional medicine patients. And just maybe I’ll convince you to add it into your own wellness routine.
The benefits of colostrum:
1. Reduces inflammation
Bovine colostrum is particularly high in lactoferrin. This powerful inflammation moderator actually rises in our bodies during times of increased inflammation by working to help lower the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. In fact, doctors test lactoferrin levels in patient’s stool to help diagnose C.diff and inflammatory bowel disease (IBS).
Years of unhealthy food, toxins, and stress can lead to leaky gut syndrome – a condition that results in damage to the intestinal lining.
When this happens, undigested food particles and bacterial endotoxins known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) “leak” into the bloodstream causing a cascade of inflammation which increases your lihood of chronic health problems such as heart disease and autoimmune conditions.
According to research, lactoferrin has the ability to bind to endotoxins to neutralize their effect and in turn, reduce inflammation, particularly in cases of psoriasis and other conditions associated with high activity of endotoxins.
2. Supports a healthy gut
Lactoferrin acts as a prebiotic and stimulates the growth of good bacteria in the gut such as lactobacillus and bifidobacterium. It also has been shown to support health of the gastrointestinal tract by promoting cell growth in the intestines. This helps to soothe inflammation and heal a damaged gut.
3. Promotes ligament and muscle healing.
Bovine colostrum is a powerhouse for promoting muscle growth and healing due to its high amount of antioxidants and growth factors, including insulin growth-factor-l (IGF-I).
Studies show that bovine colostrum supplementation can reduce oxidative stress and overall damage to muscles after exercise, making this a perfect supplement to support athletes.
Additional studies also showed that 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplements increased lean muscle mass and athletic performance.
4. Strengthens immunity
Lactoferrin works to boost immune-balancing T-cells and increase natural white blood cells which help to regulate your body’s defense against pathogens.
To look at lactoferrin’s affect on the immune system, researchers gave oral lactoferrin to mice with suppressed immune systems due to chemotherapy and autoimmune conditions.
They found that their immune systems were strengthened as well as their symptoms and overall state of their autoimmune condition.
An additional benefit is lactoferrin’s natural antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral abilities. By binding to viral and bacterial cells, lactoferrin is able to inhibit pathogen growth and prevent their entry into the body’s cell.
This is only the tip of the iceberg of bovine colostrum’s benefits to our health. With more buzz around colostrum there will undoubtedly be more research to examine and confirm the effects of adult supplementation.
If you would to start taking colostrum, make sure to get a supplement that is derived from grass-fed cows and ones not given artificial growth hormones.
Until more studies are done there is no recommended dosage or potential side effects of this supplement.
If you want to learn more about your own health case please check out our free health evaluation. We offer in person as well as phone and webcam consultations for people across the country and around the world.
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What You Need to Know About Colostrum Supplements
Bovine colostrum (simply referred to as colostrum) is a type of milk secreted by cows within the first few days of giving birth.
Available as a dietary supplement, colostrum is rich in immunoglobulins (antibodies) known to stimulate the immune system.
Proponents claim that colostrum offers a number of health benefits, including the treatment of colitis, diarrhea, and upper respiratory tract infections. Colostrum is also said to improve immunity as well as enhance athletic performance.
Scientists have also developed a special type of colostrum, known as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, which is produced by vaccinating cows against certain disease-causing microorganisms. Although clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperimmune colostrum, the evidence remains scant as to its actual benefits.
Verywell / Alexandra Gordon
Colostrum has gained popularity among athletes due to its purported ability to burn fat, build muscle, and enhance athletic performance. Hyperimmune colostrum has also spurred interest among scientists who believe that it may be able to treat a wider range of medical conditions.
In 1991, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted hyperimmune colostrum a special “orphan drug status.” This is a classification that allows manufacturers to develop a drug without competition. The status was granted specifically for the treatment of chronic HIV-related diarrhea caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium.
To date, no such benefit has been found. There is, however, evidence that it may provide relief of idiopathic diarrhea (diarrhea of unknown origin) in people with advanced HIV infection as well as diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Several studies have suggested that colostrum supplements may improve exercise performance. In one study published in 2001, scientists prescribed a group of active men and women either colostrum or whey protein. During the eight-week study, each of the subjects participated in aerobic exercise and heavy resistance training at least three times per week.
Study results showed that members of the colostrum group had a significant increase in lean body mass, while members of the whey protein group had a significant increase in body weight.
In a 2009 review of studies on colostrum and exercise performance, investigators concluded that taking colostrum supplements may be most effective during periods of high-intensity training and recovery from high-intensity training.
Similar findings were published in 2014 in which older adults given colostrum supplements had greater lower-body muscle strength after eight weeks compared to a matched set of adults given a whey powder. Upper-body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, r bone mineral content was not affected.
Colostrum may aid in flu prevention, according to a small study published in 2007. Among the study participants who took colostrum supplements for two months, the number of days with flu was three times shorter than among people not given the supplements.
Similar findings were described in a 2016 study from Egypt in which children provided a daily colostrum supplement for two months had 37 percent fewer upper respiratory tract infections than children not provided the supplement.
Despite some positive findings, there remains no evidence that colostrum can either treat the flu, lessen its severity, or reduce the risk of flu-related hospitalization or death. It should not be considered a viable alternative to the annual flu vaccine.
Although there are no guidelines as to the proper use of bovine colostrum, it is generally considered safe for use with no known drug interactions. Side effects are uncommon, although research among people with HIV has described rare reports of nausea, vomiting, anemia, and abnormal liver function.
Colostrum supplements are available in powdered form as well as in capsules and gel caps. There are even colostrum nasal sprays marketed as allergy relief remedies. Colostrum supplements can be purchased online without a prescription as well as in vitamin supplement stores and some larger drugstore chains.
Dosages can vary, but many manufacturers recommend a daily 20-gram to 60-gram dose for athletic performance or improved intestinal health. When used to manage or treat diarrhea, colostrum supplements should be taken before a meal.
Colostrum is not among the substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
Colostrum is also found naturally in human breast milk, albeit for only the first few days following the delivery.
Supplements bovine colostrum are not as stringently regulated in the United States as pharmaceutical drugs. Since the quality can vary, only purchase supplements that have been certified by an independent certifying body the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), NSF International, and ConsumerLab.
Some colostrum supplements are sold in vegetarian gel caps and are suitable for lacto-ovo vegetarians. You may also want to check that the supplement is derived from cows that have not been treated with bovine somatotropin (rBST), a growth hormone used to increase milk production.
It is important to remember that, despite some promising results, there have not been any large-scale clinical trials investigating the health benefits of colostrum. To this end, you need to be wary about any supplement that claims to be curative.
While it not uncommon for manufacturers to claim that colostrum can “boost immunity” or “enhance performance,” any suggestions that it can cure or alleviate symptoms of a disease should be regarded with extreme skepticism.
Self-treating any medical condition or delaying the standard care of treatment can have serious consequences and should be avoided.
If you are intolerant to cow's milk, you will most ly be intolerant to bovine colostrum as well. Even in powdered form, colostrum contains lactose, the type of sugar your body reacts adversely to.
To date, there have been no known reports of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) from cattle to humans via bovine colostrum. Even among milk drinkers, only three cases of mad cow disease have been reported in the United States between 1996 and 2011.
If there is any evidence of the pathogen in the extracted milk, pasteurization, sterilization, and dehydration would all but certainly kill it.
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- Antonio, J.; Sanders, M.; and van Gammeren, D. The Effects of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Active Men and Women. Nutrition. 2001 Mar;17(3):243-7.
- Cesarone, M.; Belcaro, G.; di Renzo A. et al. Prevention of Influenza Episodes With Colostrum Compared With Vaccination in Healthy and High-Risk Cardiovascular Subjects: the Epidemiologic Study in San Valentino. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2007 Apr;13(2):130-6. DOI: 10.1177/1076029606295957.
Cardioprotective Effects of Bovine Colostrum Against Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
The hidden cause of arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease may be the alteration of immunity (Jensen, 1992). Anti-bodies are created by the immune system, once heart tissue is damaged. Heart disease occurs due to the immune sensitization to cardiac antigens (Lange and Schreiner, 1994).
The acute necrosis of the myocardium that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand gives rise to a clinical condition called myocardial infarction or most commonly known as heart attack (Boudina et al., 2002).
Several biochemical alterations leading to dysfunction of cardiovascular system may cause ultimately cell death because ischemic tissue constantly generate free radicals leading to degradation of tissue defense system and thereby causing damage to myocardium and necrosis (Ferrari et al., 1990).
The pathogenesis of myocardial infarction becomes a dynamic process with the widespread existence of coronary atherosclerosis and implication of oxidative stress in mankind (Ojha et al., 2011).
One fourth of a million people die every year from heart failure. Death due to heart failure has increased six-folds over the last 40 years. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age (Rich, 1997).
Many developing countries India are struggling to bring about the impact of infectious diseases concurrently with growing burden caused by non-communicable diseases such as myocardial infarction (Srivastav et al., 2013). Nearly 29.
8 million people in India are suffering from coronary heart disease (Goyal and Yusuf, 2006).
Also, with the known mechanism of cardiovascular diseases myocardial infarction, epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies have shown evidence that myocardial infarction is largely preventable by suppression of oxidative stress occurring in the body due to the free radical generation (Filippo et al., 2006).
Today there are many synthetic drugs available in the markets, which are used for the treatment of heart diseases, but they also carry a risk of side effects. ACE inhibitors enalapril are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and post ischemic myocardial dysfunction (Pahor et al., 2000).
There is a need for natural products, which possesses beneficial effects with almost no side effects. The present investigation was promoted in the purview of the claims of a nutraceutical drug having no side effect. The nutrient-rich, colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammals in 24 to 48 h after parturition.
It has various vitamins, minerals, protein, and growth factors and carbohydrates that are vital for the nourishment of a developing neonate (Uruakpa et al., 2002). Colostrum also contains bioactive constituents , antimicrobial peptides, growth factors and immunoglobulins (Pakkanen and Aalto, 1997).
The beneficial effect of colostrum is because of the several immune factors and growth factors present in it (Thapa, 2005). During the myocardial attack the heart muscles gets damaged (Thygesen et al., 2007). Colostrum contents growth hormone and IGF-1 can decrease LDL-cholesterol whereas increasing HDL cholesterol concentrations (Rona, 1998).
The growth factors present in colostrum help in reparation and regeneration of heart muscle and also for new blood vessels for collateral coronary circulation (Gauthier et al., 2006).
As heart disease bears a resemblance to an autoimmune response in this way, Proline Rich Polypeptides (PRP) in colostrum can help limit the disease severity by toning down the attack of immune on damaged heart tissue.
Though proved to be this valuable, there has been no recent credible research claiming the cardio-protective effect of colostrum on myocardial infarction. A synthetic catecholamine and beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol causes a severe stress in the myocardium which results in infarct necrosis of heart muscle and also generates free radicals and stimulate lipid peroxidation which might be a causative factor for irreversible damage to the myocardium (Prabhu et al., 2006).
The aim of this investigation was to determine the cardioprotective action of bovine colostrum alone as well as to study its pharmacodynamic interaction with the Angiotension Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril. The study was carried out on Wistar albino rats with myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (Srivastav et al., 2013).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preparation of colostrum powder: Bovine colostrum milk was obtained from dairy source (Mumbai), after the birth of calf (within 24-72 h).
In order to preserve its biological activity, colostrum must be processed at low temperature. This milk was subjected to spray drying. The inlet temperature was 40°C and outlet temperature was 35°C.
Colostrum powder was stored at 2-8°C in the refrigerator and used within 60 days.
Acute toxicity study of colostrum: The acute toxicity of combination consisting of group I control and group II test was evaluated in mice using the OECD guidelines 423. Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into two groups, each containing 6 animals. The colostrum was administered orally at doses of 500, 1000 and 2,000 mg kg-1 of body weight.
Distilled water was administered to control group. The general behavior of the mice was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h with special attention given during the first 4 h and daily thereafter, for a total of 14 days.
Changes in the normal activity of mice and their body weights were monitored and the time at which signs of toxicity or death appeared was recorded.
Estimation of antioxidant activity by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method, reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity by TBARS (Thio Barbituric Acid Reacting Substances) method (Mehta et al.
, 2012): Evaluation of free radical scavenging activities of colostrum was carried out using DPPH Method. The in vitroantioxidant activity was evaluated keeping ascorbic acid as standard at different concentrations and its radical scavenging activity was compared with that of colostrum.
The graph was plotted using percentage inhibition vs., concentration and IC50 value was determined.
The reducing power of Colostrum was determined by the slight modification of the method of Oyaizu (1986). Various concentrations of the extract in corresponding solvents were mixed with phosphate buffer (2.5 mL) and potassium ferricyanide (2.5 mL).
This mixture was kept at 50°C in water bath for 20 min. After cooling, 2.5 mL of 10% trichloro acetic acid was added and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min whenever necessary. The upper layer of solution (2.5 mL) was mixed with distilled water (2.
5 mL) and a freshly prepared ferric chloride solution (0.5 mL). The absorbance was measured at 700 nm. Control was prepared in similar manner excluding samples. Ascorbic acid at various concentrations was used as standard.
Increased absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates increase in reducing power. Reducing power was measured by varying the concentration of the extract and the contact time.
Evaluation of lipid per oxidation inhibitory activity of colostrum was evaluated on rat liver homogenate using Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances (TBARS) method and the graph was plotted to determine average IC50 value.
Induction of myocardial infarction: Isoproterenol was be dissolved in normal physiological saline and injected subcutaneously to the rats (200 mg kg-1) daily for 2 consecutive days according to the method of Srivastav et al. (2013).
Experimental design: Animals (male rats) were divided into 7 groups each group containing 6 rats (150-250 g b.wt.) to receive the following treatment:
|Group I:||Rats received 1.0 mL water as a vehicle. Group I rats were referred as control rats|
|Group II:||Rats were administered the dose of isoproterenol 200 mg kg-1 subcutaneously twice daily at an interval of 24 h. Group II rats were referred as isoproterenol myocardial infarcted rats|
|Group III:||Rats were dosed with the test agent colostrum 250 mg kg-1 alone|
|Group IV:||Rats were treated with colostrum 250 mg kg-1 plus 0.25 mg kg-1 enalapril|
|Group V:||Rats received the test agent colostrum 500 mg kg-1 alone|
|Group VI:||Rats were treated with colostrum 500+0.25 mg kg-1 enalapril|
|Group VII:||Rats received dose of standard ACE inhibitor enalapril 0.25 mg kg-1 alone|
Biochemical serum estimation of CKMB and LDH: Blood serum collection for CKMB and LDH value calculation.
The following biochemical estimation was carried out in the SPP SPTM NMIMS CIL laboratory. The Creatine Kinase MB (CKMB) and Lactase Dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated using ERBA kits.
Statistical analysis: The results were analyzed using one-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test using Graphpad Prism 5 software. The value of p