What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

Cardarine Side Effects: Does The Use Of This SARM Cause Any Bad Long Term Issues?

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

Cardarine is a well-known compound in the bodybuilding community and in scientific circles, it’s known as GW-501516.

Although it has many purported health benefits, there aren’t any human studies to prove its efficacy. All we have going on is anecdotal evidence from users who say they’ve experienced benefits, better functioning metabolism, increased muscle growth and weight loss.

However, there’s isn’t much information available about the side effects of Cardarine. That’s why we’ve put together this article to address this topic which is often swept under the rug.

Some Background Information

Cardarine is a chemical that was created by the pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline for the purpose of treating conditions diabetes, heart disease, and impaired blood vessels. But the company had to pull the plug on research as the chemical caused cancer in animal subjects during Phase II of research.

With that said, a cancer risk hasn’t been established in human subjects because the research didn’t reach human trials. Plus, it takes a longer timespan for cancer to develop in human subjects which is why we cannot conclude that Cardarine will have the same results in humans.

So What Are The Possible Side Effects?

According to available data a study that was done on mice with liver disease, it was determined that Cardarine may actually cause liver damage by indiscriminately killing liver cells.

It is crazy to think that they had actually hoped that it may be able to help treat liver disease but found it to cause it.

During other animal studies, it was found to be unsafe for use during pregnancy, because high dosages usually led to foetal development problems. As we’ve established, the chemical could cause cancer in rats but there’s no telling if it would have the same effect on humans.

The latter incident is what forced GSK to close down their research into the chemical and it halted their plans to develop the drug.

It’s important to also note that Cardarine has a massive influence on various parts of the body, and users should keep that in mind when considering it because it may lead to some unexpected negative effects.

Yes, we know that Cardarine doesn’t have any negative reviews on bodybuilding internet forums and a lot of users downplay its negative effects but this is just one side of the story.

There’s a lot more to learn about this supplement and we’re here to separate facts from fiction.

Side Effects For Male Users

Researchers in Australia recently conducted a study with adult male participants who were given the drug for six months. The participants reported no bad effects during the entire trial period and many athletes have gone on record saying that they’ve used the chemical without experiencing any adverse effects.

But it’s important to take time off the drug for at least 3 months so that your body can recover and get back to its natural state.

Plus, abusing Cardarine has been shown to lead to negative effects decreased sexual performance, low sex drive, testosterone suppression problems, and other sexual-related issues.

Female Side Effects

Cardarine is very popular with female bodybuilders because it’s non-hormonal and doesn’t come with the risk of putting your hormones off-balance.

This means it won’t mess with your menstrual cycle or cause any emasculating effects. The best part is that Cardarine offers several different benefits that make it ideal for losing fat, gaining muscle or both.

Does This SARM Cause Any Issues With Your Eyes?

Un many SARMs out there, Cardarine doesn’t come with vision-related effects. But, avoid taking Cardarine with S4 as that may lead to temporary vision problems.

Does It Cause Cancer?

As mentioned, GSK had to pause its research on Cardarine because it ended up causing the problems it was supposed to remedy. For example, instead of enhancing liver health, it triggered cell death thus making the organ vulnerable to cancer development.

But it can be argued that this side effect was caused by high dosages. There’s no telling if that’s what happened during the research trials with the mice so we can’t be sure if it would have the same effects on humans.


Nowadays, Cardarine is classified as a SARM, and it’s a great drug to take if you want to improve endurance, reduce recovery time and cut fat.

It’s beneficial to cutting and bulking cycles and it’s safe to use in combination with other performance-enhancing drugs.

Truth be told, there are no major known long term side effects to using Cardarine according to the available data.

However, it’s important to stick to the recommended dose of 10 to 20 mg/ml per day just to be on the safe side.

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Source: https://www.sarmsworld.com/gw-501516-cardarine/side-effects/

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

Cardarine is a research chemical that was being investigated for its potential to boost metabolism and fat burning, prevent obesity, and increase muscle growth, but its side effects and risks are often dangerously downplayed. In fact, studies were halted because it was found to cause cancer! Learn all about GW501616, what its proponents use it for, why it’s banned from sanctioned sports, and why it’s so dangerous and should be avoided.

Disclaimer: Cardarine is illegal, its purported “benefits” are unproven, and it was shown to cause cancer as part of standard research before advancing through clinical trials.

Do not under any circumstances take this compound. We cannot stress this enough.

Some of our readers who were already taking the drug requested that we commission a post on it, and we are simply providing information that is available in the clinical and scientific literature.

Controversial Drug

Cardarine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline for its potential benefits on the heart, blood vessels, and diabetes. However, studies were halted in Phase II on animals because it caused cancers [1].

Some of cardarine’s proponents argue that cancer risks have not been proven in humans, but this is only because it was never found safe enough to justify long-term safety studies in humans.

In fact, most carcinogenic substances usually don’t cause cancer in these types of animal studies because they are not sensitive enough to pick up compounds that only slightly increase the chance of developing cancer.

They are designed to pick up on the worst compounds so we don’t risk the lives of human subjects in early clinical work [2].

We cannot stress this enough: cardarine has been shown to cause cancer, period! 

But how did scientists discover cardarine (less elegantly known as GW501516) in the first place?

It’s no secret that the modern inactive lifestyle contributes to many metabolic problems, such as diabetes, inflammation, and heart disease. In the search for substances that could speed up fat burning and increase physical endurance in sedentary adults, scientists turned to the PPAR-delta pathway.

Activation of PPAR-delta is associated with increased energy, fat burning, muscle building, and endurance and decreased lipids in the blood. Cardarine binds to and activates the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta (PPAR-delta). A lot of PPAR-delta is in the muscles, and it activates many genes important for energy use [3].

Activating PPAR-delta could play a role in building muscles, improving heart health, boosting metabolism, and reducing inflammation. Targeting this pathway with Cardarine seems promising. But researchers refer to Cardarine as a failed “exercise mimetic,” because it caused cancer in animal studies [3].

According to many researchers, there are natural and safe ways to activate PPAR-delta, such as endurance exercise and sun exposure. Some studies have also suggested that berberine could be a milder and safer PPAR-delta-activating supplement [4, 5, 6].


  • May shield the brain and blood vessels
  • May boost fat burning and physical performance
  • May improve lipid profile and insulin sensitivity


  • Banned due to cancer-causing effects in animals
  • It causes cancer!!!!!
  • Not well studied in humans
  • May harm the liver and worsen liver disease
  • May impair fetal development
  • Beyond dangerous
  • May cause brain damage!

Cardarine is not legal, nor is it approved for use in humans.

As its side effects have been downplayed across the internet and various forums, cardarine has gained popularity for bodybuilding and performance enhancement in athletes. With a rise in popularity, cardarine/GW501516/Endurobol is now widely available on the black market and as a research substance.

The World Anti-Doping Agency issued a rare warning about its toxicity to athletes. The agency took an additional step to warn “cheats” that this substance can be quite dangerous, raising awareness about its health risks [3].

Is Cardarine a SARM?

Cardarine isnot a SARM, which stands for selective androgen receptor modulators. SARMs activate the androgen receptors in specific tissues bone and muscle, which increases muscle mass. They were first developed in the 40s to mimic testosterone [7].

Cardarine, on the other hand, is a PPAR-delta activator. It doesn’t act directly on androgen receptors.

1) Brain

In one of the early animal studies on cardarine, treated mice appeared to have better blood circulation in the brain and reduced oxidative stress [8].

However, cardarine had both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on inflamed rat brain cells. Some inflammatory substances ( TNF-alpha) were reduced in its presence, but others, such as IL-6, were increased. High IL-6 can cause brain cell damage [9, 10].

2) Fat Burning

Cardarine was first researched for this indication. PPAR-delta activates a number of genes involved in burning fat and increasing energy use [11].

Recently, several human studies shed new light on its fat-burning benefits.

In one extremely small study of 13 men with high belly fat and a bad cholesterol profile, those who received 2.5 mg of cardarine a day for 6 weeks had decreased triglycerides, fatty acids, and VLDL proteins (apoB fractions) [12].

Cardarine was associated with increased HDL cholesterol in 2 studies of 305 patients with low HDL. Patients who received cardarine also had reduced LDL, triglycerides, and apoB [13].

In another small study of 12 inactive volunteers, Cardarine increased HDL. Those who received carnitine burned more fats as an energy source and had increased activity of fat-burning and carnitine genes (ABCA1 and CPT1) [14].

3) Obesity

In 6 overweight volunteers, cardarine was associated with reduced symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Participants’ liver fat decreased by 20%, insulin decreased by 11%, and blood fats dropped by 23-30% (triglycerides by 30%, VLDL APOB by 26%, LDL by 23%) [14].

Similarly, in obese monkeys, those receiving cardarine had higher HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides, insulin, and LDL cholesterol [15].

Also, mice given cardarine released less glucose from the liver and became more sensitive to insulin. If this effect could be proven out in humans, it could be helpful for obesity and type II diabetes [16].

Also in mice, cardarine was linked to increased development of muscle fibers [17].

4) Heart and Blood Vessels

Aside from lowering cholesterol, Cardarine may have a direct effect on blood vessels.

Cardarine prevented oxidative damage to blood vessels in mice. It may reduce the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries by boosting protective and blood vessel-relaxing nitric oxide [8].

Low doses of Cardarine reduced tissue damage and inflammation in arteries of mice. It could help clear up the blood vessels, this way reducing heart disease risk and complications [18].

Cardarine increased the growth of new blood vessels in human heart cells (increasing VEGF). This could be beneficial for those with heart disease, but could also be problematic if excessive. For example, people prone to cancer should avoid taking substances Cardarine that increase new blood vessels [19, 20].

5) Kidneys

In mice, Cardarine was linked to reduced kidney inflammation, leading the authors to suggest a potential role in protecting against kidney disease. Treated mice also experienced a reduction of the activity of genes linked to kidney disease (MCP-1) [21].

6) Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant

In general, PPAR-delta activation seems to suppress inflammation [18].

By activating PPAR-delta, cardarine could reduce liver inflammation in animals. Some researchers have concluded that it blocks substances involved in inflammatory responses and reduces the activity of inflammatory genes. In rats, cardarine consumption was associated with reduced inflammatory markers including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and NFκB [22, 23].

Applied on the skin, cardarine was associated with improved healing of diabetic wounds in mice, possibly due to reduced inflammation [24].

Cardarine may also have antioxidant potential:mice given cardarine produced more of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1 and catalase [8].

7) Liver Damage

One of the main targets of cardarine is the liver, as the liver is crucial for storing, burning, and releasing fats into the body. PPAR-delta causes the liver to switch its energy source from glucose to fatty acids, thus reducing blood sugar [16].

In mouse and cell studies, cardarine has shown the potential to be beneficial to liver health. Cells expose to cardarine produced less IL-6, which may help prevent insulin resistance. Mice given cardarine suffered less liver damage from a high-fructose diet and were less ly to develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease[25, 26, 27].

However, cardarine caused cell death in liver cells and liver damage (fibrosis) in some mice with liver disease, further underlining the dangers associated with this compound [28].

8) Muscle Growth and Stamina

In one study, the activation of PPAR-delta via cardarine drove the development of muscle fibers in mice. These muscle fibers were associated with increased physical performance: the treated mice had improved endurance and could run for almost twice as long [17].

9) Skin Diseases

Limited research suggests that activation of PPAR-delta could improve the inflammation caused by skin diseases psoriasis. Cardarine was also linked to reduced inflammation in human skin cells. Remember, however, that there are no approved cardarine products, let alone cardarine creams [29].

10) Blood Flow and Wound Healing

Some researchers have suggested a role for cardarine in improving blood flow and wound healing. In mice, cardarine (and, by association, PPAR-delta activation) is associated with increased levels of blood-vessel relaxing nitric oxide (via BH4). Nitric oxide helps improve blood flow and boosts wound healing [8, 30].

Usage & Potential Dangers

In clinical studies, doses of 2.5 to 10 mg/day were used for up to 12 weeks. Since this drug was never formally approved, and research was halted due to cancer risks, there is no correct dosage. Cardarine is not considered safe in any quantity.

Cardarine increased cell death in liver cells and caused liver damage in some mice with liver disease. Animal studies revealed that cardarine can cause cancer.

There are not enough human studies to show the same effect, but sufficient human safety studies will never be undertaken because of the apparent dangers of this compound.

Rapid cancer development in several organs in animals was also the main reason why GSK abandoned development of the drug in 2007 [28, 31, 32].

In animals, cardarine was not safe to use during pregnancy as high doses over an extended period of time posed risks to fetal development [33].

Have in mind that internet forums and blogs often downplay the side effects and present only a small fraction of the information. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that cardarine is very dangerous! 

We at SelfDecode advise speaking to a doctor before taking any drug, especially when taking unscheduled drugs with limited safety data. Cardarine is illegal and broadly considered unsafe, as it caused multiple types of cancer in animals. Never take this compound for any reason! We cannot stress this enough. 

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/gw501516-cardarine/

GW501516: Shocking Secrets About Cardarine Revealed

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

PPAR-delta has the ability to activate a large number of fat burning genes.

In fact, a human study was recently conducted to corroborate these claims and found that Cardarine has the ability to reduce fatty acids, triglycerides and VLDL proteins.

These results were a double-blind, randomized and controlled trial study involving 13 men who suffered from bad cholesterol and excess belly fat.

The subjects were given a low dosage of just 2.5 mg per day over a period of 6 weeks.

In yet another study with 12 inactive males, the participants were given 5 to 10 mg of Cardarine per day for 12 weeks.

The results show that Cardarine was able to drastically reduce their levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and APOB.

  • Helps with Muscle Growth and Boosts Stamina

Since Cardarine can activate PPAR-delta pathways, it can also improve strength endurance. One study showed that the compound might increase muscle fibers associated with peak physical performance.

One animal study showed that Cardarine can help maintain normal blood flow to the brain. This protects brain vessels from oxidative damage and stress.

PPAR activators are known to enhance the development of nerve cells. PPAR-delta pathways can also help us achieve that result.

But when tested on rat brain cells, Cardarine was shown to have both pro and anti-inflammatory effects.

GW501516 increased the action of inflammatory cells IL-6 while reducing others TNF-alpha. So there’s no telling yet if Cardarine is good or bad for the brain.

In another double-blind randomized and controlled trial study with 6 overweight volunteers, Cardarine was able to reverse symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and all without causing any adverse side effects.

The participants were given 2.5 to 10 mg of Cardarine per day for 2 weeks and showed reduced liver fat, insulin, and blood fat levels in just 2 weeks.

As if that weren’t enough, Cardarine traveled through the PPAR-delta pathways to help prevent the effects of inflammatory substances.

Thus, it was concluded that Cardarine may be of assistance in dealing with obesity-induced insulin resistance as well as chronic inflammation.

That’s because obese insulin-resistant patients usually carry around belly fat that exposes them to higher inflammatory cytokines when compared to healthy people who have more PPAR-delta.

Another study conducted on obese monkeys suggests that Cardarine may help decrease the risk of heart disease by reducing the occurrence of HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin.

In a study done with mice, GW501516 was shown to prevent the overproduction of glucose by the liver, while increasing insulin sensitivity. If the same results can be achieved with human subjects, then Cardarine might be a fitting candidate for an effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

The mice even showed improvement in muscle fiber development, which could help prevent obesity without the need for physical exercise. The compound may also help prevent weight gain that’s caused by diet and lifestyle by accelerating fat burning in muscles.

  • Protects Heart and Blood Vessels

Evidence suggests that taking Cardarine might actually influence the way our blood vessels work.

A study done on mice showed that it can prohibit oxidative damage that happens in blood vessels. This is in addition to boosting vessel-relaxing nitric oxide which helps protect blood vessels from the build-up of plaque in the arteries.

In lower doses, Cardarine has been found to offer tremendous benefits in terms of lowering inflammation and tissue damage. If it can do that, then it could contribute to reducing the risk and complications associated with heart disease.

We also know that it has the ability to boost new blood vessel growth in actual human heart cells. This is promising news for heart disease sufferers but it’s only effective in limited doses. Cardarine’s ability to increase blood vessels may also be a risk factor for cancer patients.

  • Lowers the Chances of Kidney Inflammation

According to a study done on mice, GW501516 can significantly diminish the occurrence of kidney inflammation which can preclude kidney disease. In the mentioned study, Cardarine was able to slow down the genes associated with kidney disease.

Generally speaking, Cardarine is an effective inflammation suppressant.

It has been shown to suppress liver inflammation in animals by activating PPAR-delta. It can even suppress inflammation on the DNA level, causing inflammatory genes to slow down.  In one study, Cardarine was applied topically on mice suffering from diabetic wounds and it greatly accelerated their healing.

Using the PPAR-delta pathway, Cardarine was able to curb inflammation and promote the survival of skin cells in order to improve the skin’s ability to heal the wound. When looking deeper, scientists found that Cardarine can also prevent the production of inflammatory molecules NFκB, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1.

It didn’t stop there, however, as GW501516 stimulated the production of beneficial antioxidant enzymes as well.

  • Protects Liver from Damage

This compound mainly targets the liver because it’s a major organ that’s responsible for regulating fat at different stages, from burning to storing and releasing it.

GW501516 can help reduce blood sugar by forcing the liver to derive its energy from fatty acids instead of glucose.

A study done with mice showed that Cardarine may also prohibit insulin resistance by reducing the production of IL-6. To prove this point, researchers gave Cardarine to a group of mice who were consuming a high fructose diet and it actually protected them from liver damage.

Further research showed that this compound has the ability to prevent liver damage in mice by killing degenerative cells.

Source: https://www.sciencescape.org/cardarine-gw501516/

What is Cardarine? 10 Potential Benefits (GW-501516)

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

Interested in using Cardarine? Take a deep dive on this compound and learn must-know facts before giving it a try.

RELATED: What Is The Best Supplement For Bodybuilding?

In this article:

What Is Cardarine?

Gw501516 Cardarine Endurobol Fat Loss Steroids Inhibitors for Bodybuilding 317318-70-0 https://t.co/Da4EcPLERZ pic..com/sgddxEJkhZ

— Andy Yang (@Andy_Yang560) November 25, 2017

Cardarine or GW-501516 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-delta) agonist (activator) developed during the collaboration of GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals in the 1990s.

It was initially studied to stop the growth of colon, breast, and prostate tumors. Researchers then discovered its effect on the body’s fat levels during the early stages of clinical trials.

This effect on metabolism was later on linked to potentially helping with metabolic diseases inflammation, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

The PPAR-delta

The PPAR-delta is a sensor protein for fatty acids found in the muscles. The Cardarine’s job is to activate this protein.

When Cardarine binds and activates the PPAR-delta, the rate at which the body burns fat is increased.

When activated, PPAR-delta engages many genes important for energy expenditure that can also result in muscle building, energy and endurance increase, and blood-lipid decrease.

Aside from that, the activation of this protein can also improve heart health and reduce inflammation.

Athletes and Cardarine

Despite it being originally invented for a different purpose, the fitness and sports community noticed its ability to increase metabolism and endurance.

Accounts of fast post-training recovery and greater strength and endurance during workouts are shared within the community, so the use of the compound caught on.

By the late 90s, a great number of professional athletes and bodybuilders were using Cardarine. After a 2007 study showing Cardarine-injected mice with higher levels of physical performance, the compound was soon used as a doping substance by athletes.

In fact, several attendees of the 2008 Olympic who were on Cardarine prompted the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and several sports commissions to ban the compound.

Is Cardarine a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARM)?

Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are testosterone-mimetics first developed in the 40s that activate androgen receptors in tissues such as bone and skeletal muscle tissues to increase muscle mass.

While SARMs and Cardarine may have the same effects, the former activates androgen receptors while the latter, the PPAR-delta.

Animal Studies, Potential Cancer Risks, Ideal Cardarine Dosage

Cardarine animal studies were halted because subjects began developing cancer cells. While one might argue about the drug’s safety on humans given such results in animals, it’s important to look at the Cardarine dosage given to the subjects.

The rats were given 0 mg, 54.9 mg, 219.6 or 439.2 mg each day. This is about five times more than the average dosage people take.

The ideal Cardarine dosage for people is 2.5 to 10 mg per day in the span of up to three months.

1. Neurological Benefits

In one animal study, Cardarine showed to have protected brain vessels from oxidative stress and damage and helped in the maintenance of normal brain blood flow.

Although this is not specifically tested with Cardarine, PPAR activators can boost nerves cell development. PPAR-delta, the protein Cardarine activates, plays an important role in this development.

There are also studies where Cardarine showed both pro and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat’s brain.

It lowered levels of inflammatory substances TNF-alpha but increased other inflammatory markers IL-6. High levels of IL-6 can damage brain cells.

2. Fat-Burning Properties

Cardarine was initially studied for this indication. PPAR-delta can activate genes that play a role in fat-burning and increasing energy use.

A number of recent human studies has observed the fat-burning effects of Cardarine.

In a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 13 men with belly fat and unhealthy cholesterol profiles, Cardarine decreased fatty acids, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (apoB fractions).

The intake of Cardarine at a lower dose of 2.5 mg a day for over six weeks forced the liver to get rid of more VLDL from the body.

In two open-label studies of 305 patients with low HDL, the compound showed to have increased HDL cholesterol levels and lower LDL, triglycerides, and APOB. Participants were prescribed with 5 to 10 mg of Cardarine per day for 3 months.

Another small study of 12 volunteers showed GW-501516 to increase blood HDL; the placebo decreased it.

By activating carnitine and fat-burning genes, the compound sped up the use of fats as the source of energy to muscle and fat cells. The patients were given 10 mg of Cardarine daily for two weeks.

HDL Definition: AKA high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and good cholesterol. When in the bloodstream HDL removes the harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial Definition: This is a study where neither the researchers nor participants know what drug they are getting.

3. Obesity

In the same blood HDL study mentioned above, Cardarine reversed metabolic syndrome symptoms without causing damage to the body. This is possibly a result of the increased carnitine and fat-burning activity in the muscles.

The results showed a 20% decrease in liver fat, 11% in insulin, 30% in triglycerides, 26% VLDL APOB, and 23% LDL. The dose for this study was 2.5 or 10 mg daily for two weeks.

In another study, the mechanism of Cardarine prevented the activity of inflammatory substances which is thought to help with insulin resistance in obese people and chronic inflammation.

This is attributed to the higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and lower counts of PPAR-delta in the belly fat of insulin-resistant obese people in comparison with healthy people.

Increase in HDL cholesterol and decrease in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and insulin is also observed in obese monkeys given with Cardarine. Altogether, these effects can decrease heart disease risk.

One GW-501516 study in mice also showed the halting of the release of too much glucose in the liver and the increase of insulin sensitivity in the subjects. This finding is helpful in the study of obesity and type II diabetes.

Another study observed the increase in muscle fiber development in mice. Cardarine can also potentially protect one from being obese even without exercise.

Lastly, in this research, Cardarine showed to potentially protect one from diet-related weight gain as it can help break down fats faster in muscles.

RELATED: Natural Testosterone Supplements For Men Who Lift

4. Heart and Blood Vessels

Cardarine is also linked to having a direct effect on blood vessels.

In mice, it prevented oxidative blood vessel damage. Risk of plaque build-up in arteries is also reduced as it can increase levels of nitric oxide — a substance that relaxes and protects the blood vessels.

In another study in mice, low doses of the compound resulted in a decrease in arterial tissue damage and inflammation. Cardarine can help clear up vessels, reducing the risks of heart disease and complications.

By increasing vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), a blood vessel formation initiating protein, Cardarine increased the growth of new blood vessels in human hearts in this study. This can help heart disease patients if doses are kept to a minimum.

In excessive doses, Cardarine may increase the risk of forming cancer cells, especially with people prone to the disease.

5. Kidney Benefits

A study in mice showed Cardarine can reduce kidney inflammation, suggesting it’s viability to protect people from kidney diseases. The compound decreased the activities of genes (MCP-1) linked to kidney illnesses.

6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties

Cardarine appears to suppress inflammation in general.

In animals, PPAR-delta activation can reduce liver inflammation. The compound blocks DNA-level inflammatory responses, thus, reducing inflammatory genes’ activity.

A study on diabetic mice showed that when applied on the skin, Cardarine reduced inflammation of wounds improving overall healing.

Furthermore, through PPAR-delta activation, the compound can protect and increase skin cell survival resulting in an improved healing process.

As previously mentioned, Cardarine can also halt the production of a number of inflammatory molecules NFκB, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha in rats.

Lastly, for its antioxidant potential, a mice study showed the increase in the creation of the enzymes SOD1 and catalase after Cardarine intake.

7. Liver Benefits

Since the liver is a crucial organ for storing, burning, and releasing fats into the body, it’s one of Cardarine’s main targets.

From using glucose as its main energy source, Cardarine causes the liver to use fatty acids instead. As a result of the PPAR-delta activation, blood sugar may be reduced.

Here are a few more interesting studies in mice:

8. Skeletal Muscle Growth and Stamina

PPAR-delta Cardarine activation boosts development of skeletal muscle fibers in rats. These fibers are linked with increased physical performance.

The subjects of the study are noticed to have improved endurance; being able to run almost twice as long.

9. Skin Diseases

In human skin cell studies, Cardarine also showed some promise. In skin diseases psoriasis, for example, PPAR-delta Cardarine activation can help improve inflammation.

10. Blood Flow and Wound Healing

When Cardarine activates PPAR-delta proteins, nitric oxide levels in blood vessels are increased. Nitric oxide (via BH4), in mice, may improve blood flow and boost wound healing. 

What Are the Potential Risks and Side Effects of Cardarine?

Some of the recorded Cardarine side effects are:

  1. The increase of liver cell death and fibrosis (liver damage) in mice with liver problems.
  2. During pregnancy in animals, high doses of Cardarine over an extended duration posed developmental risks to the offspring.
  3. In mice, high doses of the compound eventually lead to the formation of cancer cells. This is the main reason why GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals stopped further research on the compound in 2007. There are, however, insufficient studies in humans showing the same effects.

Where to Buy Cardarine?

There are a number of Cardarine vendors on the internet. We, at AskMuscle, however, strongly advise consulting a doctor before taking this supplement reported to have adverse effects on animals.

If unsure about using Cardarine, there are other all-natural supplements you can try that with the same benefits.

Is it Possible to Naturally Activate PPAR-delta Proteins?

Yes. There are natural ways you can activate these proteins—intake of berberine, endurance exercise, and sun exposure.

To know more about the benefits and uses of cardarine, watch this video from A1Chems:

Before even considering using Cardarine, be mindful of its potential side effects as it has a great influence on the entire body. Hopefully, this rundown of GW-501516 information can help you make an informed decision.

Do you have any other questions about GW-501516? Ask away in the comments section below!

Up Next:

Source: https://askmuscle.com/cardarine-potential-benefits/

Cardarine (Gw501516) Review 2019: The Beginners Guide

What is Cardarine (GW501516)? + Side Effects, Dangers

If you have been taking some supplements over a long period of time, you would be aware of cardarine. It is also known by the name GW-501516. Cardarine (GW501516) was formulated in the 1990s as a medical compound. It was used primarily to prevent the development of tumors in crucial body parts colon, prostate, and breasts.

However, simultaneously, Cardarine began to be used by fitness enthusiasts and aspiring bodybuilders as a supplement for more strength and stamina. Further medical research revealed that GW501516 could be classified as a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator. This put it in the same league as other hormone stimulating supplements RAD-140.

The general consensus on Cardarine (GW501516) is that it is effective in destroying redundant deposits of body fat, improving muscle recovery and enhancing endurance for more physical feats. However, to understand how cardarine can be of great medical and fitness advantage, it would be better to know everything about this SARM in full detail.

Gw501516 was quickly found to be a major weight loss and increased endurance supplement. Some have even said it might be a future cure for obesity. Studies have begun done under high-fat diets where users still shredded weight using this sarm. The first roll of a Gw501516 is to eliminate unwanted fat in the body.

The Greatest pro-inflammatory cells in adipose tissues lowering rates of genes involved in lipogenesis. Making you able to stop fatty acids from being stored as fat. By doing this you will shred bad weight at a rapid rate.

With no effects seen inside the body even 2 years later, some have even stated that it helped promote liver function and healing properties.

How Gw501516 works

As said before, cardarine was developed originally as medicine for prevention of tumors and cancers in crucial body parts and tissues.

GlaxoSmithKline, the pharmaceutical and healthcare giant, had developed it as a medicine for preventing the onset of cancer in vital organs of waste disposal and reproduction.

But as a solution against cancer and tumors, it was not found to be that effective.

Rather, controlled clinical trials revealed something else. Cardarine (GW-501516) was even more useful as an activating compound that would boost the human body’s ability to lose fat, build more lean muscle and become stronger and more flexible.

Bodybuilders soon realized that cardarine could be the new and doubly effective fuel for their challenging bodybuilding schedules. And usage of the same further vindicated this fact.

Ever since then, it has been used as a supplement for all fitness enthusiasts and even athletes and sportspeople.

Gw50156 works in the body to hunt down and then isolate the PPARs that occur in the body. Once they are isolated, Cardarine then binds them and helps the body switch from the carbohydrates that it targets to the internal fat stores. This simply translates into a fat loss in the body.

It would do good to clarify one important point about cardarine. While, functionally, it might be classified in the same league as active SARMs and even myostatin inhibitors, cardarine is not really a SARM. In fact, it is a PPAR activator.

Cardarine before and after 8 weeks

PPAR stands for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activator Receptor. These transcription proteins are found in hormones in the human body and are responsible for genetic expression. Since they are proteins, scientists discovered that they could be acted upon so as to improve the body’s ability to increase muscle mass and even lose fat.

The work of a PPAR activator- cardarine (GW501516) is to activate the PPAR delta. Cardarine acts upon the same and enhances the working of the proteins so that they can be assimilated and used by the human body for further strength and resilience. It connects itself to the PPAR found in the muscles and bones and then boosts the production of these proteins to be used by the muscles.

It is this particular manner of working that differentiates it from a regular SARM in which only hormone substitutes are used to improve muscle mass. As it happens, apart from better strength and flexibility of muscles in bodybuilders, cardarine has other significant medical advantages as well. Let’s understand them in detail.

Benefits And Uses

Cardarine has been found in clinical trials involving safe animal testing to be effective in protecting brain vessels. It guards the crucial areas of the brain against stress and damage.

Moreover, it also helps to regulate a steady flow of blood into the organ. In human beings too, it has been tested positively that a PPAR activator- cardarine (GW501516) can improve the health of nerve cells in the brain.

More studies will possibly vindicate its advantage in improving brain health and strength.

When it comes to weight and fat loss, cardarine has been proved to be an excellent solution with very well-established scientific studies.

Trials with men have proven that a PPAR activator- cardarine can help to burn triglycerides, fatty acids and even harmful proteins VLDL compounds.

This is done as cardarine can improve the functioning of the liver to process and dispose of these fats effectively. Moreover, fats were also used more optimally for further muscle development and growth.

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Against obesity itself, cardarine is also effective. For those, who suffer from a metabolic syndrome that results in artificial weight gain, it was able to reverse that effect and enhance the ability of the body to burn more fat.

Liver fat was reduced by 20 percent and insulin production was also improved so as to burn blood sugar more effectively.

Moreover, compounds that caused inflammation and resistance to insulin were thwarted from acting by cardarine (GW-501516).

For the coronary system comprising the heart and the blood vessels, this is yet another wonderful remedy. It has been concluded from many scientific trials that cardarine does help to burn cholesterol to significant levels. It also helped to maintain a good balance of LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. This itself decreases the risk of strokes and infarctions.

Moreover, this PPAR activator works quite well in protective blood vessels from oxidization and it also diminishes damage and inflammation for tissues and blood cells. New blood cells can also be developed, thus strengthening the function of the heart and other cardiovascular processes.

For vital organs the liver and kidneys, cardarine is equally good and this is because it has been found that it reduces inflammation in the liver and kidneys to a great extent.

Moreover, it also causes the liver to draw its energy not from blood sugar but from fatty acids. As a result, it eases the strain that blood sugar takes on the liver and also keeps the blood sugar levels in check.

Inflammation is also reduced since the liver is able to burn more fats and calories in one go after a dose of cardarine (GW501516).

Since it helps to cure the problem of inflammation in different parts of the body, cardarine has been categorized as a medical remedy with antioxidant properties.

It also improves the body’s natural healing of wounds and infections and protects the skin cells from decay and diseases. It also helps to reduce the inflammation in the skin, improves stamina and strength in muscles and prevents blood clotting which is a major problem.

Endurance, which is important for both bodybuilders and athletes, will also be boosted with intake of cardarine for a long time.

These are all the major medical advantages that one can get from using this supplement. However, are there any side effects that one should be aware of? It would be better to know about all the potential adverse symptoms of dosage of cardarine.

Potential Side Effects

The following are some of the ly side effects and symptoms of consuming cardarine as a supplement:

  • There is a mild chance of some liver damage since cardarine (GW-501516) is capable of destroying some of the dead liver cells completely. This might not be too grave an issue but nevertheless, you should get your liver checked regularly so that it does not become severe.
  • most medicines and health supplements, cardarine is not recommended for pregnant women at any cost. So, it becomes more limited in its medical applications.
    • In some clinical trials, rats and rodents were found to be suffering from the liness of cancer. This means that its antioxidant properties still have to be established with more scientific research on human beings. It cannot be trusted completely to be a remedy for cancer or infections.
  • There will be some other side effects that have to be known properly. Since there is a lack of scientific evidence to explain how it would affect the human body in any adverse or even mildly harmful way. However, it would be again advised to consult the doctor or expert before asking about dosage for medicines.

Post Cycle Therapy

The dosage for cardarine is supposed to be between 2.5 mg to 10 mg on a daily basis. And it can be taken in a schedule of 12 weeks. However, since there is some uncertainty about the exact nature of cardarine, a post-cycle therapy would be suggested for all those who are using to build muscle mass as a supplement for exercises.

Cardarine has a normal post-cycle therapy that would last for 12 weeks. This is recommended since the effects of cardarine can be potentially very severe. It would be good for the human body to recover completely so that the dosage of the same can be repeated successfully.

However, once again, it would be recommended that one should always consult his or her doctor or fitness expert to know for sure what would be the ideal dosage quantity and what would be the best post-cycle therapy duration for you as well.

Cardarine is good medicine and it does well enough to act upon the proteins found in the bones and muscles. It has many medical advantages that have already been proven scientifically. But it is still good to be slightly wary about it in general so that there are no major ailments or health complications in the future.


10-20mg a day is average dose you can start off taking about 10mg a day and move up into taking it twice day moving into 20mg day for best results. Cycles run up to 12-14 weeks with a six week break period between cycles.

This particular sarm was designed to take in long periods of time. Studies have shown that u can also use this with other stimulants. There should also be no need for a pct cycle after use either unless mixed with other stimulants.