- Lactobacillus Salivarius
- What are Probiotics?
- Where is L. salivarius found?
- How does it work? What does L. salivarius do in the body?
- Potential Health Benefits of Lactobacillus salivarius
- Oral Health
- Heliocabactor Pylori
- Vaginal Health
- Atopic Dermititis
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
- Conditions for which insufficient evidence exists for L. salivarius ‘s effectiveness
- 5 Reasons Probiotics Are Great for New Moms
- 1. Probiotics keep you regular
- 2. They can treat—and even prevent—mastitis
- 3. They can also ward off painful yeast/thrush
- 4. Probiotics will just keep you healthier
- Preventative effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius, in the TNBS model of rat colitis
- Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus salivarius
- 5+ Amazing Lactobacillus salivarius Probiotic Benefits
- What is Lactobacillus salivarius?
- Health Benefits of L. salivarius
- 1) Dental Health
- Insufficient Evidence For
- 2) Obesity
- 3) Immunity
- 4) Dermatitis
- 5) Mastitis
- Animal & Cell Research (Lacking Evidence)
- 6) Antibacterial Activity
- 7) H. pylori
- 8) Gut Inflammation
- 9) Diabetes
- 10) Liver Function
- 11) Asthma
- Cancer Research
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Lactobacillus salivarius is a form of naturally occurring bacteria that is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of most humans.
L. salivarius is one of 25 species in the L. salivarius clade (group of organisms with a common ancestor) of the genus Lactobacillus. The name Lactobacillus salivarius comes from the properties of the saliva in the mouth, where the bacteria was first isolated.
Specifically, this bacterial strain is found in the colon, small intestines, vagina, and mouth, and is believed to have many positive health benefits.
other bacteria commonly referred to by the term “probiotics,” L. salivarius can be grown outside the body, and can then be consumed orally for its medicinal benefit.[1,2,3]
What are Probiotics?
Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that confer a health effect on the person taking them when they are consumed in adequate amounts.
The concept of probiotics evolved from a theory first proposed in 1910 by Nobel Prize winning Russian scientist, Elie Metchnikoff, who suggested that the long life of Bulgarian peasants resulted from their consumption of fermented milk products. He believed that when certain beneficial bacteria were consumed, they positively influenced the microflora of the colon by decreasing the toxic effects of other, non-beneficial colonic microflora.
This concept was developed further through the decades, and today, especially in Europe and Japan, probiotic-focused research is at an all-time high.[5,6]
Where is L. salivarius found?
Lactobacillus salivarius naturally occurs in fermented milk products such as probiotic yogurt. It can also be found in fruits and vegetables tomatoes, bananas, artichokes, asparagus, chicory roots, and garlic.
How does it work? What does L. salivarius do in the body?
Lactobacillus salivarius is one of many types of bacteria that are considered “friendly” organisms and that are used as a form of medical treatment called “probiotics” (as opposed to antibiotics).
L. salivarius produces organic acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid from carbohydrate fermentation. It produces its own form of antibiotic, hydrogen peroxide, which can be helpful in preventing the spread of “bad” or disease-causing bacteria.
It also stimulates the immune system, which promotes a sense of well-being, and can also be of potential benefit when treating intestinal disease.
Potential Health Benefits of Lactobacillus salivarius
Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius are considered beneficial organisms, and are often used as probiotic treatments for disease conditions or medications that have resulted in the destruction of “good” bacteria and the proliferation of “bad” bacteria.
For example, treatment with antibiotics can effectively destroy disease-causing bacteria and eliminate a disease, but at the same time these antibiotics can kill off benevolent bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.
The theory of probiotic treatment is that taking probiotics during and after antibiotic treatment can help to preserve a balanced intestinal flora.
The use of L. salivarius in particular is common as a probiotic treatment to relieve or treat a number of disorders. Individual conditions for which evidence of L. salivarius’s possible effectiveness as a probiotic treatment exists are covered in the following sections.
The Lactobacillus species of bacteria has long been associated with cases of dental cavities (caries), because lactic acid can corrode teeth. In fact, the Lactobacillus count in saliva has been used as a “caries test” for many years.
Recently, however, the L. salivarius strain has been successfully used to treat a number of oral health conditions.
For example, a 2009 study found that L. salivarius reduced the population of bacteria that causes gum disease in 66 volunteers.
In another 2014 study, consumption of tablets containing L. salivarius significantly reduced the number of mutans streptococci that cause caries, and thus increased resistance to caries risk factors.
Other studies have found that use of the probiotic L. salivarius reduced halitosis, and improved overall periodontal health in smokers.
L. salivarius has been shown to reduce inflammatory response in mice to H. pylori, a bacterium that is known to cause ulcers. This is encouraging because H. pylori is linked to cancer, and antibiotic resistance impedes the success of current antibiotic-based treatment.
When L. salivarius is administered along with the antibiotic treatment, its efficacy is increased and side effects are reduced.[14,15]
Because the female genital tract is one of the principal sites for colonization by human microbiota, there has been interest in the relationship between the composition of these bacteria and human health. Lactobacillus has been successfully used to control infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV).
Atopic dermititis symptoms have been shown to be reversed by the use of L. salivarius in some children [17,18] and adults.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Lactobacillus salivarius has been found to be of benefit in alleviating flatulence in individuals suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. L. salivarius has also been used in combination with other probiotics to treat IBS, although the extent of its efficacy is still uncertain.
L. salivarius has been found to increase the ratio of beneficial bacteria to non-beneficial bacteria in obese adolescents. And a 6-week study of L. salivarius in combination with fructooligosaccharide (FOS) found that it significantly reduced total cholesterol, “bad” (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increased “good” (HDL) cholesterol in humans.
Blood inflammatory markers were also significantly reduced, so these results are encouraging enough that the authors of the study felt that this treatment should be “therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life.”
Conditions for which insufficient evidence exists for L. salivarius ‘s effectiveness
Evidence to support the use of Lactobacillus salivarius in treating the following conditions is considered inconclusive and/or insufficient at this time, although some individual study authors and peer reviewers suggest that more research is warranted.• Diabetes• Acquired immune diseases• Asthma
5 Reasons Probiotics Are Great for New Moms
*Guest post by Nurse Wendy of Boobie Bar
I get it: You’ve got a new baby, a new (and ly radically different) life and very little time to, or for, yourself. It’s hard to fit a single extra thing into your day. But one thing you want to make sure to do as a new mom, especially if you’re nursing, is to take a daily probiotic, that magical concoction of gut-protecting, immune-boosting healthy bacteria.
In addition to the benefits that probiotics bring to the general population, they offer perks specific to nursing and new moms. Here are four.
1. Probiotics keep you regular
Constipation is the bane of many new moms, whether due to a lack of exercise, less-than-stellar eating habits or too-few fluids, or the gut-slowing effect of pain killers. Probiotics work by feeding the gut “good” bacteria that make it healthy, which makes going to the bathroom easier. Because who wants to strain with an episiotomy?
2. They can treat—and even prevent—mastitis
Studies have shown that certain strains of probiotics are useful in treating mastitis, a painful breast infection that afflicts approximately one in five breastfeeding women.
In fact, a 2010 study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases showed that women who took either Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716 or Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 to treat mastitis actually fared better than those who took an antibiotic, with better improvement rates and lower rates of recurrence.
What’s more, taking probiotics during pregnancy might even prevent mastitis from developing in the first place.
A 2016 study, also in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found that women who took Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy had a significantly lower rate of mastitis after delivery.
And when mastitis did develop, the women who had taken the probiotic had bacterial counts in their milk that were significantly lower than those who hadn’t taken it.
3. They can also ward off painful yeast/thrush
The normalcy of frequent nursing, coupled with the nipple damage moms sometimes experience in the early days of breastfeeding, sets the stage for developing a painful yeast infection known as Candida albicans, or thrush. Yeast thrives in warm, moist, dark, sugary environments, which makes lactating breasts the perfect breeding ground if nipple damage is present.
The good news is that the healthy bacteria in probiotics can help prevent Candida from multiplying and causing a problem for you—and your baby’s mouth. (Thrush can be passed from your breasts to your baby’s mouth, causing a fungal infection for him, too.)
4. Probiotics will just keep you healthier
A full 80 percent of your immunity lies in your gut, so the healthier you can keep that gut (with the avalanche of good bacteria that probiotics bring), the healthier you’ll be. And at a time when you’re not sleeping much or taking such great care of yourself due to the 24/7 demands of a new baby, you need all the help you can get.
Interested in learning how probiotics can also support the health of your little one? Head to our Probiotics page!
Nurse Wendy Colson RN, IBCLC, RLC has over 20 years’ experience in maternal-child health with an emphasis on human lactation. She works as a lactation consultant in the hospital and in private practice. She is also the CEO + founder of Boobie Bar, which includes her patent-pending proprietary herbal lactation blend in just ONE bar giving moms a third choice from herbal pills and teas.
Preventative effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius, in the TNBS model of rat colitis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of the digestive tract, and usually refers to two related conditions, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, characterized by chronic and spontaneously relapsing inflammation.
Although the etiology of IBD remains unknown, there is increasing experimental evidence to support a role for luminal bacteria in the initiation and progression of these intestinal conditions; probably related to an imbalance in the intestinal microflora, relative predominance of aggressive bacteria and insufficient amount of protective species[1,2].
This could justify the remission achieved in intestinal inflam-mation, after treatment with antibiotics such as metronidazole or ciprofloxacin, or the fact that germ-free animals may fail to develop experimental intestinal inflammation.
In consequence, a possible therapeutic approach in IBD therapy is the administration to these patients of probiotic microorganisms, defined as viable nutritional agents conferring benefits to the health of the human host.
In fact, it has been reported that administration of a mixture of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus or of non-pathogenic viable Escherichia coli prolongs remission in ulcerative colitis. Moreover, there are reports on successful induction and maintenance of remission of chronic pouchitis after oral bacteriotherapy[7,8]. However, treatments of Crohn’s disease with probiotic preparations reported conflicting results[9-12].
Different mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the therapeutic effects exerted by probiotic microorganisms.
First, probiotic microorganisms may exert their action through a modulation of the intestinal bowel flora, which may result from competitive metabolic interactions with potential pathogens, production of anti-microbial peptides, or inhibition of epithelial adherence and translocation by pathogens[5,13]; second, probiotics have been proposed to modulate the host defenses by influencing the intestinal immune system[14,15]; and third, these microorganisms have been reported to positively affect the intestinal barrier function[16,17]. However, the detailed mechanisms by which these bacteria mediate their effects are not fully understood.
Although the results obtained after probiotic treatment in both human IBD and experimental colitis are promising, new studies are required in order to further understand this new concept for the therapy of IBD, even if we consider the fact that many studies have shown that not all bacterial species have equal activities in reducing intestinal inflammation[18,19]. Hence, the selection of new probiotic strains for the treatment of IBD can be their ability to regulate the immune response of the intestinal mucosa. This can be the case of Lactobacilli strains, which were able to downregulate the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In fact, previous ex vivo experiments have reported the ability of L. casei and of L. bulgaricus to downregulate TNF-α production in colonic explants from patients with Crohn’s disease, thus supporting their future development for IBD therapy. This may be of special relevance, since several studies have attributed a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD to this pro-inflammatory cytokine, as evidenced by the increased production of TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa from IBD patients[21,22] as well as by a number of clinical studies using anti-TNF-α mAb therapy that have clearly shown a beneficial effect in these patients.
The aim of the present study was to test the preventative effects of a L. salivarius ssp. salivarius strain in the trinitrob-enzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis, a well-established model of intestinal inflammation with some resemblance to human IBD.
The selection of this lactobacilli strain was previous in vitro studies that showed its ability to adhere to human intestinal cells, to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth (unpublished results) and to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines by immune cells.
Special attention was paid to its effects on the production of some of the mediators involved in the inflammatory response, such as TNFα, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, the correlation among the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of L. salivarius ssp.
salivarius and modifications on colonic flora induced by this probiotic was also studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out in accordance with the ‘Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals’ as promulgated by the National Institute of Health.
All chemicals were obtained from Sigma Chemical (Madrid, Spain), unless otherwise stated. Glutathione (GSH) reductase was provided by Boehringer Mannheim (Barcelona, Spain).
In vitro modulation of cytokine production by bacteria
Puleva Biotech’s lactic acid bacteria collection was screened for Lactobacilli bacteria with the ability to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages.
For this purpose, rodent bone marrow-derived macrophages, obtained as previously described, were stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS, in the presence or absence of 106 CFU/mL of each bacteria for 2 h. Then, cells were washed with culture media to eliminate non-attached bacteria, and cultured with new media for 12 h.
TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 production was evaluated by ELISA in cell supernatants (CytoSetsTM, Biosource International, Nivelles, Belgium) following manufacturer’s instructions.
Preparation and administration of the probiotic
L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 was provided by Puleva Biotech (Granada, Spain) and it was normally grown in MRS media at 37 °C in anaerobic conditions using the AnaeroGen system (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). For probiotic treatment, bacteria was suspended in skimmed milk (109 CFU/mL) and stored at -80 °C until usage.
Female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Service of the University of Granada (Granada, Spain) and maintained in standard conditions.
The rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10); two of them (non-colitic and control groups) received no probiotic treatment and the other (treated group) received orally the probiotic (5×108 CFU suspended in 0.5 mL of skimmed milk) daily for 3 wk. Both non-colitic and control groups received orally the vehicle used to administer the probiotic (0.
5 mL daily). Two weeks after starting the experiment, the rats were fasted overnight and those from the control and treated groups were rendered colitic by the method originally described by Morris et al. Briefly, they were anesthetized with halothane and given 10 mg of TNBS dissolved in 0.
25 mL of 500 mL/L ethanol by means of a Teflon cannula inserted 8 cm through the anus. Rats from the non-colitic group were administered intracolonically 0.25 mL of PBS instead of TNBS. All rats were killed with an overdose of halothane, 1 wk after induction of colitis.
Assessment of colonic damage
The body weight, water and food intake were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Once the rats were killed, the colon was removed aseptically and placed on an ice-cold plate, longitudinally opened and luminal contents were collected for the microbiological studies (see below).
Afterwards, the colonic segment was cleaned of fat and mesentery, blotted on filter paper; each specimen was weighed and its length measured under a constant load (2 g).
The colon was scored for macroscopically visible damage on a 0-10 scale by two observers unaware of the treatment, according to the criteria described by Bell et al (Table 1), which takes into account the extent as well as the severity of colonic damage.
Representative whole gut specimens were taken from a region of the inflamed colon corresponding to the adjacent segment to the gross macroscopic damage and were fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde. Cross-sections were selected and embedded in paraffin. Equivalent colonic segments were also obtained from the non-colitic group.
Full-thickness sections of 5 μm were obtained at different levels and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The histological damage was evaluated by two pathologist observers (AN and AC), who were blinded to the experimental groups, according to the criteria described previously by Stucchi et al (Table 2).
The colon was subsequently divided into four segments for biochemical determinations. Two fragments were frozen at -80 °C for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and another sample was weighed and frozen in 1 mL of 50 g/L trichloroacetic acid for total GSH content determinations. The remaining sample was immediately processed for the measurement of TNF-α and LTB4 levels. All biochemical measurements were completed within 1 wk from the time of sample collection and were performed in duplicate.
Table 1 Criteria for assessment of macroscopic colonic damage.
|1||Hyperemia, no ulcers|
|2||Linear ulcer with no significant inflammation|
|3||Linear ulcer with inflammation at one site|
|4||Two or more sites of ulceration/inflammation|
|5||Two or more major sites of ulceration and inflammation or|
|one site of ulceration/inflammation, extending >1 cm along the|
|length of the colon|
|6-10||If damage covers >2 cm along the length of the colon, the score|
|is increased by one, for each additional centimeter of involvement|
Table 2 Criteria for assessment of microscopic colonic damage.
|Ulceration: none (0); mild – surface (1); moderate (2); extensive-full thickness (3)|
|Mitotic activity: lower third (0); mild mid-third (1); moderate mid-third (2); upper third (3)|
|Mucus depletion: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Mononuclear infiltrate: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Granulocyte infiltrate: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Vascularity: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Mononuclear infiltrate: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Granulocyte infiltrate: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
|Edema: none (0); mild (1); moderate (2); severe (3)|
MPO activity was measured according to the technique described by Krawisz et al; the results were expressed as MPO units per gram of wet tissue; one unit of MPO activity was defined as that degrading 1 µmol hydrogen peroxide/min at 25 °C.
Total GSH content was quantified with the recycling assay described by Anderson, and the results were expressed as nanomole per gram of wet tissue. Colonic samples for TNF-α and LTB4 determinations were immediately weighed, minced on an ice-cold plate and suspended in a tube with 10 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) (1:5 w/v).
The tubes were placed in a shaking water bath (37 °C) for 20 min and centrifuged at 9 000 r/min for 30 s at 4 °C; the supernatants were frozen at -80 °C until assay. TNF-α was quantified by ELISA (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Buckinghamshire, UK) and the results were expressed as picogram per gram of wet tissue.
LTB4 was determined by enzyme immunoassay (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Buckinghamshire, UK) and the results expressed as nanogram per gram of wet tissue.
iNOS expression was analyzed by Western blotting as previously described. Control of protein loading and transfer was conducted by detection of the β-actin levels.
Luminal content samples were weighed, homogenized, and serially diluted in sterile peptone water. Serial 10-fold dilutions of homogenates were plated on specific media for Lactobacillus (MRS media, Oxoid) or Bifidobacterium (MRS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L dicloxacillin, 1 g/L LiCl and 0.
5 g/L L-cysteine hydrochloride) and incubated under anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic chamber for 24-48 h at 37 °C. Coliforms and enterobacteria were also determined by using specific Count Plates Petrifilm (3M, St. Paul, MN).
After incubation, the final count of colonies was reported as log10 colony forming units per gram of material.
All results are expressed as mean±SE. Differences between means were tested for statistical significance using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc least significance tests.
Non-parametric data (score) are expressed as the median (range) and were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences between proportions were analyzed with the χ2 test. All statistical analyses were carried out with the Statgraphics 5.
0 software package (STSC, MD), with statistical significance set at P
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus salivarius
When it was first described, the genus Lactobacillus encompassed just over 50 species,. Currently, however, the genus Lactobacillus contains more than 100 species assigned to twelve Lactobacillus clades, and two Pediococcus clades, whereby clades are defined as major clusters in the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny.
Several phylogenetic analyses have acknowledged the cohesion of the Lactobacillus salivarius clade, termed as such due to the extensive characterization of the L. salivarius species.
[2–5] Presently, this clade comprises 25 species that have been isolated from humans, animals, food and environmental sources (Figure 1) & (Table 1).
Summary of the species in the Lactobacillus salivarius clade and the general sources from which they were first isolated. A total of 25 species had been identified in the clade as of February 2010.
The species L. salivarius owes its name to the 'salivary' properties of the oral cavity from which it was first isolated. The name thus acknowledges the intrinsic association of the species with the mammalian digestive tract. Of taxonomic interest is the fact that L.
salivarius was originally assigned two subspecies, either salivarius or salinicus according to its ability to ferment either rhamnose or salicin respectively.
 However, the use of these subspecies descriptors was recently discontinued on the basis of a polyphasic analysis, which included microbiological and molecular analyses of a bank of 32 L. salivarius strains.
Lactobacillus salivarius has gained attention in recent years as a promising probiotic species.[8–11] Probiotics are defined as “…living micro-organisms which upon ingestion in certain numbers exert health benefits (on their host) beyond inherent nutrition”.
 Thus, probiotics and their probiotic action by definition must be considered in the context of a whole organism or living system. Of particular interest is the L. salivarius strain UCC118.
This strain was isolated from the terminal ileum of a human in Cork, Ireland, and it was shown to exhibit several potentially probiotic traits[8,13] that have since been further characterized (Table 2). Research on L. salivarius UCC118 was greatly assisted by the sequencing, assembly and annotation of its 2.13-Mb genome, which revealed a multireplicon genome architecture.
 In particular, the identification of a circular genomic megaplasmid was exceptionally novel amongst lactobacilli. The contribution of the megaplasmid to the probiosis of L. salivarius has since been well studied, and megaplasmids have been identified in 33 L. salivarius strains and in at least six other Lactobacillus species.
Although the number of species identified in the L.
salivarius clade has increased rapidly in recent years, few other clade members have been thoroughly investigated, and these species are currently under-represented in the published literature.
This article aims to discuss the potentially probiotic properties of the species found in the L. salivarius clade, with particular emphasis on the probiotic strain L. salivarius UCC118.
Future Microbiol. 2010;5(5):759-774. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.
5+ Amazing Lactobacillus salivarius Probiotic Benefits
Lactobacillus salivarius, a bacterium that lives in the human mouth, has shown promise for dental health, weight management, immunity, skin health, and other potential benefits. Learn more here.
What is Lactobacillus salivarius?
Lactobacillus salivarius is one of the most prevalent species in human saliva. It produces organic acids, such as lactic acid and acetic acid, from carbohydrates, which can inhibit the growth of surrounding microorganisms. It also produces hydrogen peroxide and other antimicrobial substances .
This bacterium is believed to stimulate the immune system, improve intestinal disease and promote well-being .
Health Benefits of L. salivarius
L. salivarius probiotic supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. Supplements generally lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.
1) Dental Health
L. salivarius beneficially changed the bacterial population of gum plaque in 66 volunteers .
L. salivarius increased resistance to caries risk factors in 64 healthy volunteers .
Oral administration of L. salivarius improved bad breath, showed beneficial effects on bleeding on probing from the periodontal pocket, and inhibited the reproduction of “bad” bacteria [5, 6, 1, 7].
Periodontal clinical parameters especially improved in smokers .
However, the authors of one study suggested that L. salivarius itself may possess an inherent cariogenic activity following adherence to the tooth surface .
Insufficient Evidence For
The following purported benefits are only supported by limited, low-quality clinical studies. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of L. salivarius for any of the below-listed uses. Remember to speak with a doctor before taking L. salivarius probiotic supplements, and never use them in place of something your doctor recommends or prescribes.
L. salivarius increased the ratio of beneficial bacteria (Bacteroides, Prevotellae, and Porphyromonas) to Firmicutes-belonging bacteria in obese adolescents .
6-week supplementation of L. salivarius along with fructooligosaccharide (FOS) significantly reduced total cholesterol, “bad” (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and increased “good” (HDL) cholesterol in 45 human subjects. Blood inflammatory markers were also significantly reduced .
Daily administration of L. salivarius to 40 healthy adults was safe and improved gut microbiota and different parameters related to immune response .
L. salivarius enhanced both innate and acquired immune responses in human cells .
L. salivarius improved symptoms in children [14, 15], and adults with atopic dermatitis .
Oral administration of L. salivarius during late pregnancy prevented mastitis (breast infection) in 108 women .
Animal & Cell Research (Lacking Evidence)
No clinical evidence supports the use of L. salivarius for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
6) Antibacterial Activity
L. salivarius produces a bacteriocin, an antimicrobial substance, that can significantly protect mice against infection with the invasive foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes .
7) H. pylori
L. salivarius suppressed H. pylori and reduced infection-induced inflammatory responses in mice .
This inhibition is strain specific, though, and a study showed that only 9 the 28 L. salivarius strains tested inhibited H. pylori growth .
8) Gut Inflammation
L. salivarius facilitates the recovery of the inflamed tissue in rat colitis, by ameliorating the production of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, including TNF-α and NO .
Treating diabetic mice with dead L. salivarius reversed gut microbial imbalance, restored mucosal antibacterial protein and lessened endotoxin levels .
10) Liver Function
Pretreatment with L. salivarius improved acute liver injury in rats .
L. salivarius exerts a good health-promoting effect in acute liver failure .
L. salivarius decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and showed beneficial immunomodulatory activity in blood cells drawn from asthmatic subjects .
L. salivarius decreased allergen-induced airway response in mice .
L. salivarius alleviated the clinical symptoms, airway hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in mice with asthma .
L. salivarius suppressed colon carcinogenesis in rats .
L. salivarius killed oral cancer cells and inhibits cancer growth in rats .
The relevance of these studies to human cancer is unknown.
In cell and animal studies, researchers have observed that L. salivarius:
A formula containing L. salivarius was shown to be safe and well-tolerated in human clinical trials , including a trial with 6-month-old infants .
L. salivarius was shown to be nonpathogenic for mice, even in doses 10,000 times higher than those normally consumed by humans .
Use in patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status, and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms should be avoided as it can lead to infections. To avoid adverse effects, talk to your doctor before starting any new probiotic supplements.