What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Adderall: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Safety Info – Drugs.com

What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Generic Name: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine (am FET a meen and DEX troe am FET a meen)
Brand Names:Adderall, Adderall XR, Mydayis

Medically reviewed by Kaci Durbin, MD Last updated on Apr 25, 2019.

What is Adderall?

Adderall contains a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants that affect chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control.

Adderall is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Adderall may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important information

Adderall may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. Tell your doctor if you have had problems with drug or alcohol abuse.

Stimulants have caused stroke, heart attack, and sudden death in people with high blood pressure, heart disease, or a heart defect.

Do not use this medicine if you have used a MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days, such as isocarboxazid, linezolid, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, or tranylcypromine or have received a methylene blue injection.

Adderall may cause new or worsening psychosis (unusual thoughts or behavior), especially if you have a history of depression, mental illness, or bipolar disorder.

You may have blood circulation problems that can cause numbness, pain, or discoloration in your fingers or toes.

Call your doctor right away if you have: signs of heart problems – chest pain, feeling light-headed or short of breath; signs of psychosis – paranoia, aggression, new behavior problems, seeing or hearing things that are not real; signs of circulation problems – unexplained wounds on your fingers or toes.

You may not be able to use Adderall if you have glaucoma, overactive thyroid, severe agitation, moderate to severe high blood pressure, heart disease or coronary artery disease, vascular disease, or a history of drug or alcohol addiction.

Before taking this medicine

Do not use this medicine if you have taken an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. A dangerous drug interaction could occur. MAO inhibitors include isocarboxazid, linezolid, methylene blue injection, phenelzine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine, and others.

You may not be able to use Adderall if you are allergic to any stimulant medicine. You may not be able to use Adderall if you have:

  • glaucoma;
  • overactive thyroid;
  • severe anxiety or agitation (stimulant medicine can make these symptoms worse);
  • high blood pressure;
  • heart disease or coronary artery disease;
  • vascular disease or hardening of the arteries; or
  • a history of drug or alcohol addiction.

Some medicines can interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. Tell your doctor about any other medications you are using.

Be sure your doctor knows if you also take opioid medicine, herbal products, or medicine for depression, mental illness, Parkinson's disease, migraine headaches, serious infections, or prevention of nausea and vomiting.

Ask your doctor before making any changes in how or when you take your medications.

Symptom of serotonin syndrome may include agitation, hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not real), coma, fast heart rate, dizziness, sweating, feeling hot, muscle rigidity or shakiness, seizures, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Stop Adderall immediately if you experience these symptoms.

Stimulants have caused stroke, heart attack, and sudden death in certain people. Tell your doctor if you have:

  • heart problems or a congenital heart defect;
  • high blood pressure; or
  • a family history of heart disease or sudden death.

To make sure Adderall is safe for you, tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has ever had:

  • depression, anxiety, mental illness, bipolar disorder, psychosis, problems with aggression, or suicidal thoughts or actions;
  • motor tics (muscle twitches) or Tourette's syndrome;
  • seizures or epilepsy;
  • an abnormal brain wave test (EEG); or
  • liver or kidney disease; or
  • blood circulation problems in the hands or feet.

Taking Adderall during pregnancy can cause premature birth, low birth weight, or withdrawal symptoms in the newborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.

The medications in Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using this medicine.

Adderall is not approved for use by anyone younger than 3 years old.

How should I take Adderall?

Take Adderall exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Adderall may be habit-forming. Never share this medicine with another person, especially someone with a history of drug abuse or addiction. Keep the medication in a place where others cannot get to it. Selling or giving away this medicine is against the law.

Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

You may take Adderall with or without food, first thing in the morning.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open an extended-release capsule. Swallow it whole.

To make swallowing easier, you may open the capsule and sprinkle the medicine into a spoonful of applesauce. Swallow right away without chewing. Do not save the mixture for later use.

While using this medicine, your doctor will need to check your progress at regular visits. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using this medicine.

Adderall can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using this medicine.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

Keep track of your medicine. Adderall is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.

Adderall dosing information

Usual Adult Dose of Adderall for Attention Deficit Disorder:

IR:-Initial Dose: 5 mg orally 1 or 2 times a day-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 5 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.-Maximum Dose: Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed 40 mg per day.

XR:Patients starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication:-Initial Dose: 20 mg orally once a day Comments:-IR: The first dose should be given upon awakening; 1 to 2 additional doses should be given at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.

-Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if continued therapy is required.

Use: As part of a total treatment program for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Usual Adult Dose of Adderall for Narcolepsy:

IR:-Initial Dose: 10 mg orally per day in divided doses-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 10 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.

Comments:-The first dose should be given on awakening; 1 to 2 additional doses should be given at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.-The usual dose is 5 to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response.

-Dosage should be reduced if bothersome adverse reactions (e.g., insomnia, anorexia) appear.

Use: Narcolepsy treatment

Usual Pediatric Dose of Adderall for Attention Deficit Disorder:

IR:Age 3 to 5 Years:-Initial Dose: 2.5 mg orally per day-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 2.5 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.

Age 6 to 17 Years:-Initial Dose: 5 mg orally 1 or 2 times a day-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 5 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.-Maximum Dose: Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed 40 mg per day.

XR:Age 6 to 12 Years (starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication):-Initial Dose: 5 or 10 mg orally once a day in the morning-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 5 to 10 mg increments at weekly intervals.

-Maximum Dose: 30 mg/day Age 13 to 17 Years (starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication):-Initial Dose: 10 mg orally once a day-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be increased to 20 mg/day after one week if symptoms are not adequately controlled.

-Maximum Dose: 30 mg/day Comments:-IR: The first dose should be given on awakening; 1 to 2 additional doses should be given at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.-Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if continued therapy is required.

Use: As part of a total treatment program for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Usual Pediatric Dose of Adderall for Narcolepsy:

IR:Age 6 to 11 Years:-Initial Dose: 5 mg orally per day in divided doses-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 5 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Age 12 Years and Older:-Initial Dose: 10 mg orally per day in divided doses-Maintenance Dose: Daily dose may be raised in 10 mg increments at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.

Comments:-The first dose should be given on awakening; 1 to 2 additional doses should be given at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.-The usual dose is 5 to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response.

-Dosage should be reduced if bothersome adverse reactions (e.g., insomnia, anorexia) appear.-Narcolepsy rarely occurs in children under 12 years of age.

Use: Narcolepsy treatment

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember, but not late in the day. Skip the missed dose if it is almost evening. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. An overdose of Adderall could be fatal.

Overdose symptoms may include restlessness, tremor, muscle twitches, rapid breathing, confusion, hallucinations, panic, aggressiveness, muscle pain or weakness, and dark colored urine.

These symptoms may be followed by depression and tiredness.

Other overdose symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, uneven heartbeats, feeling light-headed, fainting, seizure (convulsions), or coma.

What should I avoid while taking Adderall?

This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

Avoid drinking fruit juices or taking vitamin C at the same time you take Adderall. These can make your body absorb less of the medicine.

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Adderall: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • signs of heart problems – chest pain, trouble breathing, feeling you might pass out;
  • signs of psychosis – hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not real), new behavior problems, aggression, hostility, paranoia;
  • signs of circulation problems – numbness, pain, cold feeling, unexplained wounds, or skin color changes (pale, red, or blue appearance) in your fingers or toes;
  • a seizure (convulsions);
  • muscle twitches (tics); or
  • changes in your vision.

Seek medical attention right away if you have symptoms of serotonin syndrome, such as: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Adderall can affect growth in children. Tell your doctor if your child is not growing at a normal rate while using this medicine.

Common Adderall side effects may include:

  • stomach pain, loss of appetite;
  • weight loss;
  • mood changes, feeling nervous;
  • fast heart rate;
  • headache, dizziness;
  • sleep problems (insomnia); or
  • dry mouth.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect Adderall?

Ask your doctor before using a stomach acid medicine (including Alka-Seltzer or sodium bicarbonate). Some of these medicines can change the way your body absorbs Adderall, and may increase side effects.

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially:

  • buspirone, lithium, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs (including citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, others), tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, others) or other medicine to treat depression or mental illness;
  • blood pressure medicine;
  • heartburn medicine;
  • a blood thinner such as warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven;
  • cold or allergy medicine that contains a decongestant;
  • opioid (narcotic) medicine; or
  • seizure medicine.

This list is not complete and many other drugs can interact with Adderall. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Give a list of all your medicines to any healthcare provider who treats you.

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Adderall only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Copyright 1996-2020 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 11.02.

Medical Disclaimer

Source: https://www.drugs.com/adderall.html

Side Effects of Adderall (Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts), Warnings, Uses

What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Adderall Side Effects Center

Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

Last reviewed on RxList 1/22/2020

What Is Adderall?

Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine salts) is an amphetamine used for treating:

  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and
  • narcolepsy

What Are Side Effects of Adderall?

Side effects of Adderall include:

  • nervousness,
  • restlessness,
  • excitability,
  • irritability,
  • agitation,
  • dizziness,
  • headache,
  • fear,
  • anxiety,
  • agitation,
  • tremor,
  • weakness,
  • blurred vision,
  • sleep problems (insomnia),
  • dry mouth or unpleasant taste in the mouth,
  • diarrhea,
  • constipation,
  • stomach pain,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • fever,
  • hair loss,
  • loss of appetite,
  • weight loss,
  • loss of interest in sex,
  • impotence,
  • difficulty having an orgasm,
  • increase blood pressure,
  • increased heart rate, and
  • heart palpitations.

Dosage for Adderall

The usual dose of Adderall is 2.5-60 mg daily administered in one or three doses.

What Drugs, Substances, or Supplements Interact with Adderall?

Adderall may interact with:

  • heart or blood pressure medications,
  • diuretics (water pills),
  • cold or allergy medicines (antihistamines),
  • acetazolamide,
  • chlorpromazine,
  • ethosuximide,
  • haloperidol,
  • lithium,
  • meperidine,
  • methenamine,
  • phenytoin,
  • phenobarbital,
  • reserpine,
  • ammonium chloride,
  • ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
  • potassium phosphate,
  • antacids,
  • sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer),
  • potassium citrate,
  • sodium citrate and citric acid,
  • sodium citrate and potassium,
  • stomach acid reducers, or
  • antidepressants

Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use.

Adderall During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Adderall should not be used in pregnancy. Mothers taking Adderall should refrain from nursing because amphetamines are excreted in human milk and can have undesirable effects on the child.

Additional Information

Adderall is habit forming and chronic use may lead to dependence.

Our Adderall Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

ADHD Symptoms in Children See Slideshow Adderall Consumer Information

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • signs of heart problems–chest pain, trouble breathing, feeling you might pass out;
  • signs of psychosis–hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not real), new behavior problems, aggression, hostility, paranoia;
  • signs of circulation problems–numbness, pain, cold feeling, unexplained wounds, or skin color changes (pale, red, or blue appearance) in your fingers or toes;
  • a seizure (convulsions);
  • muscle twitches (tics); or
  • changes in your vision.

Seek medical attention right away if you have symptoms of serotonin syndrome, such as: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Long-term use of stimulant medicine can affect growth in children. Tell your doctor if your child is not growing at a normal rate while using this medicine.

Common side effects may include:

  • stomach pain, nausea, loss of appetite;
  • weight loss;
  • mood changes, feeling nervous or irritable;
  • fast heart rate;
  • headache, dizziness;
  • sleep problems (insomnia); or
  • dry mouth.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Adderall (Amphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Mixed Salts)

The abbreviated term ADHD denotes the condition commonly known as: See Answer

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW

Source: https://www.rxlist.com/adderall-side-effects-drug-center.htm

Adderall (amphetamine) Uses, Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions, Warning & Abuse

What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Children and Adolescents

Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems.

Although some structural heart problems alone may carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Adults

Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD.

Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater lihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Hypertension And Other Cardiovascular Conditions

Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS], and individuals may have larger increases.

While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g.

, those with preexisting hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Assessing Cardiovascular Status In Patients Being Treated With Stimulant Medications

Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.

Preexisting Psychosis

Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with preexisting psychotic disorder.

Bipolar Illness

Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of mixed/manic episode in such patients.

Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.

Emergence Of New Psychotic Or Manic Symptoms

Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses.

If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.

1% (4 patients with events 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.

Aggression

Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD.

Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility.

Long-Term Suppression Of Growth

Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they will ly have this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.

Seizures

There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizure, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.

Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud's Phenomenon

Stimulants, including Adderall®, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown.

Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon, were observed in postmarketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug.

Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

Serotonin Syndrome

Serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening reaction, may occur when amphetamines are used in combination with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives are known to be metabolized, to some degree, by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and display minor inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolism [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The potential for a pharmacokinetic interaction exists with the coadministration of CYP2D6 inhibitors which may increase the risk with increased exposure to Adderall®. In these situations, consider an alternative nonserotonergic drug or an alternative drug that does not inhibit CYP2D6 [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g.

, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g.

, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).

Concomitant use of Adderall® with MAOI drugs is contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].

Discontinue treatment with Adderall® and any concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur, and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment.

If concomitant use of Adderall® with other serotonergic drugs or CYP2D6 inhibitors is clinically warranted, initiate Adderall® with lower doses, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome during drug initiation or titration, and inform patients of the increased risk for serotonin syndrome.

Visual Disturbance

Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.

Source: https://www.rxlist.com/adderall-drug.htm

Adderall (Adderall XR) – Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions – Drugs

What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Adderall is the brand name of a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults.

Adderall is a combination of two stimulant drugs, amphetamine and dextroamphetamine.

Adderall XR is an extended-release form of the drug.

Doctors also prescribe Adderall (but not Adderall XR) to treat narcolepsy.

Adderall may help people with ADHD control their activities and increase their attention spans.

The drug may also prevent symptoms of narcolepsy, which include excessive sleepiness and sudden attacks of daytime sleepiness.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Adderall in 1960. The agency also has approved the combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine as a generic drug.

DSM Pharmaceuticals makes the brand-name drug, and many drug companies make a generic version.

Adderall belongs to a class of drugs called central nervous system stimulants. The drug works by increasing levels of the brain chemical dopamine, which stimulates the brain.

This stimulation has a calming and focusing effect on people with ADHD.

Adderall 'High' and Abuse

Use of Adderall has surged in recent years.

Research shows that the number of ADHD medications prescribed to children increased 45 percent from 2002 to 2010.

Of these drugs, Adderall was the second most-prescribed medication.

Sales of the drug jumped more than 3,000 percent from 2002 to 2006. In 2010 alone, the total number of Adderall prescriptions topped 18 million.

One reason for the surge in Adderall prescriptions is that increasing numbers of children and teenagers are getting an ADHD diagnosis.

However, doctors also prescribe the drug to children and adults who do not have ADHD.

This increased availability of Adderall has led to widespread abuse of the medication.

Because Adderall increases dopamine levels, it can trigger a feeling of euphoria among people who don't have a medical reason to take it.

As a result, it has become a drug of choice among people trying to get “high,” who often crush and snort the pills or mix them water and inject them.

Because stimulants Adderall increase alertness and attention, a growing number of people who do not have an ADHD diagnosis are using the drug to enhance their ability to think and focus.

This off-label use of Adderall is a growing trend, particularly among high school and college students who are trying to study for exams or boost their academic performance.

Stimulants Adderall, sometimes called “smart pills,” are currently the second most common form of drug use on college campuses.

Despite the widespread belief that Adderall can improve a person's ability to learn, the drug does not enhance thinking ability in people who do not have ADHD.

Young people who do not have ADHD but are taking Adderall to get better grades in school or gain an academic advantage are at risk for potentially deadly side effects.

Adderall and Weight Loss

Adderall also can suppress appetite, and a growing number of people who want to lose weight also abuse the drug as a diet pill.

However, using Adderall or Adderall XR for weight loss can result in severe side effects, including psychosis, addiction, stroke, cardiac arrest, and death.

Adderall Warnings

Adderall can increase your risk for heart problems, high blood pressure, and stroke.

If the person taking Adderall has a history of a heart defect or other heart problems, there is a risk for sudden death.

Doctors need to check children for any heart problems before prescribing Adderall.

Adderall may increase your risk for mental health problems, including depression, bipolar disorder, and unusual behaviors including aggressive or hostile behavior.

Children on Adderall also may develop psychotic symptoms, which include seeing things that are not there (hallucinations) and believing things that are not true (delusions).

Adderall may be habit-forming. This is more ly if you take Adderall in larger doses, more often, or for longer than recommended by your doctor.

You may need to take increasingly greater doses to control symptoms, but taking larger doses increases your risk for heart and mental health problems.

Children younger than 3 should not take Adderall, and children younger than 6 should not take Adderall XR.

Always tell your doctor if you have allergies to any medications. Let your doctor know about any:

  • Reactions you have had to other stimulants
  • Family history of heart problems, high blood pressure, or stroke
  • Family history of mental problems
  • Previous drug or alcohol abuse

Several other conditions your doctor will need to be aware of before prescribing Adderall for you include any history of:

If your child is taking Adderall, you should talk to the doctor about the risk for delayed growth.

Some stimulants may delay growth and development in children. A doctor will need to check your child regularly while the child is on Adderall.

It's also important confirm a diagnosis of ADHD before treating a child with Adderall.

Sometimes, poor school performance or behavioral issues are symptoms of other problems that need treatment, such as trauma, dyslexia, or mental illness.

Medical experts do not know whether Adderall is safe for elderly people.

If you are older than 65, ask your doctor whether there are other drug options that might be safer for you.

Adderall Withdrawal

If you suddenly stop taking Adderall, you may have Adderall withdrawal symptoms, also known as an “Adderall crash.”

Symptoms of Adderall withdrawal can include depression, insomnia or other sleep disorders, irritability, and extreme fatigue.

You are at higher risk for Adderall addiction if you have abused drugs or alcohol in the past.

Adderall withdrawal can be managed with help from your doctor, who may advise you to slowly taper off your use of the drug.

Adderall and Pregnancy

Adderall might be unsafe to take during pregnancy.

Because of this, talk with your doctor before starting Adderall if you are pregnant or may become pregnant, and call your doctor right away if you get pregnant while on Adderall.

Also, do not take Adderall while breastfeeding because the drug can pass through breast milk to a breastfeeding baby.

Source: https://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/adderall

Adderall: Uses, Side Effects and Abuse

What Is Adderall? Effects, Official Uses, Dosage

Adderall is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall, a brand name, is a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which are central nervous system stimulants. Taking Adderall may help increase the ability to focus, pay attention and control behavior.

The drug increases the activity of the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Adderall mainly stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the body's “fight or flight” responses, such as pupil dilation, increased blood pressure and heart rate and increased sweating.

Dosage of Adderall

Adderall is available as a tablet and as an extended-release capsule (Adderall XR). It comes in varying doses, ranging from 5 mg to 30 mg. The prescribed dose will depend on the size of the patient and the severity of symptoms. Doctors typically start patients with a low dose and gradually increase the dose, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The tablet is usually taken two to three times daily and the extended-release capsule is usually taken once daily, according to the NIH.

Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may cause side effects, including:

  • Nervousness
  • Restlessness
  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
  • Headache
  • Changes in sex drive or ability
  • Dry mouth
  • Stomach pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Some side effects can be serious, and the NIH says that anyone who experiences any of these symptoms should call their doctor immediately:

  • Fast or pounding heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Excessive tiredness
  • Slow or difficult speech
  • Dizziness or faintness
  • Weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
  • Seizures
  • Motor tics or verbal tics
  • Believing things that are not true
  • Feeling unusually suspicious of others
  • Hallucinating (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
  • Mania (frenzied or abnormally excited mood)
  • Aggressive or hostile behavior
  • Changes in vision or blurred vision
  • Fever
  • Blistering or peeling skin
  • Rash
  • Hives
  • Itching
  • Swelling of the eyes, face, tongue or throat
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Hoarseness (abnormal voice changes)

Who should not use Adderall

Adderall is not for everybody. It should not be used by patients with a history of glaucoma, severe anxiety or agitation, a personal or family history of tics, or Tourette syndrome. Stimulants can also cause sudden death in patients with congenital heart defects or serious heart problems.

As a result, patients should alert their doctors if they have a history of heart disease, heart rhythm disorder, coronary artery disease or heart attacks, according to the NIH.

Doctors should also be alerted if the patient has a history of high blood pressure, mental illness, peripheral vascular disease or seizure disorders.

Adults ages 65 and older should usually not take Adderall because it is not as safe as other medications for this age group, the NIH says.

Some drug interactions could be harmful. The NIH says that people should not take Adderall if they have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), a type of antidepressant, in the last two weeks.

Adderall and children

For children with ADHD, or hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment and appear before the age of 7, Adderall can be considered part of a total treatment program.

ADHD must be diagnosed through a series of tests that rule out other mental disorders.

Other treatment measures will include psychological, educational and social aspects — drug treatments may not even be necessary.

For treating ADHD, Adderall is approved for use in children ages 3 years and older, and Adderall XR is approved for children ages 6 and older, according to the NIH. For children with narcolepsy, the drug is approved for those ages 12 and older.

Adderall is not intended for use in children who exhibit symptoms that are secondary to environmental factors or exhibit symptoms that indicate other psychiatric disorders, such as psychosis, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

There is evidence that Adderall may slow a child's growth or weight gain, so doctors should monitor children's growth carefully while they are on the medication, the NIH says.

Abuse and addiction to Adderall

Adderall is a Schedule II controlled substance, which means there is a high risk for addiction or abuse and is why any usage should be closely monitored by a medical professional.

According to the Mayo Clinic, simply taking too much Adderall can cause dependence. People using Adderall should not take a larger dose or take it more often or for a longer time than prescribed by a doctor. Also, abruptly stopping the medication can cause depression, fatigue and sleep problems.  

“When taken as prescribed by a physician, there is little risk of addiction, but if taken recreationally for the 'euphoric' effect, the risk of abuse will be enhanced,” said Dr. Maria Pino, a toxicologist and course director for pharmacology at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine in New York.

There is a rising trend of college students abusing Adderall and similar drugs, Ritalin, to perform better on tests and papers. A study by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) found that full-time college students were twice as ly as non-students to have used Adderall non-medically.

“Adderall has become one of the mainstay drugs at many party events both on [college] campus[es] and off because it is cheap and easy to access,” said Dr. Marc J. Romano, assistant medical director at Ocean Breeze Recovery in Pompano Beach, Florida.

Romano also noted that individuals often report using Adderall when drinking alcohol to offset the effects of the latter drug. They feel that they do not get as drunk as they would when taking Adderall. Individuals may drink more alcohol when taking Adderall, though, which can result in serious impairment, including death from alcohol poisoning.

This medication should not be sold or shared; doing so is not only dangerous, but also illegal. There is evidence that abuse of this drug may be related to an increase in emergency room visits involving prescription stimulants.

A 2016 study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry found that nonmedical use of Adderall by adults had gone up by 67.1 percent and emergency department visits involving the medication had gone up by 155.

9 percent, from 2006 to 2011.

Long-term abuse and overdose

Chronic abuse is marked by severe rash, insomnia, irritability and personality changes. The most severe symptom of abuse is psychosis, which is often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia, according to the FDA.

Toxic symptoms from taking an overdose of Adderall can come at low doses. Initial signs of an overdose include restlessness, tremor, confusion, hallucinations and panic, the FDA says.

After this central stimulation, the patient will undergo fatigue, depression, and often cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms.

The NIH says that people should contact a medical professional immediately if they suspect that they or someone they know has overdosed on Adderall.

Additional resources:

This article is for informational purposes only and is not meant to offer medical advice. This article was updated on March 28, 2016 by Live Science Contributor, Alina Bradford, and again on Oct. 18, 2018 by Live Science Senior Writer, Rachael Rettner.

Source: https://www.livescience.com/41013-adderall.html

healthyincandyland.com