What Do We Know About Oxiracetam? Purported Effects, Potential Risks, and More

What Do We Know About Oxiracetam? Purported Effects, Potential Risks, and More

What Do We Know About Oxiracetam? Purported Effects, Potential Risks, and More

Oxiracetam is a relatively new drug that is widely claimed to have “nootropic” (“cognitive-enhancing”) effects. It is closely related to piracetam, another relatively popular nootropic compound.

Oxiracetam has been claimed to have many interesting potential effects on the brain and cognitive functioning – but what does the current science have to say about these purported effects? Read on to learn more about the potential effects, mechanisms, and side-effects of this drug.

Disclaimer: This post is not a recommendation or endorsement for the use of oxiracetam.

The FDA has not approved this drug for any specific medical or other use, and the available research on it is still in a very early stage, without adequate data to come to any firm conclusions about its general efficacy or safety in humans.

We have written this post for informational purposes only, and our goal is solely to inform people about what science currently says about oxiracetam’s mechanisms, potential effects, and possible side-effects.

What is Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a member of the racetam family of drugs. These drugs were originally developed with the aim of treating memory loss and cognitive decline due to age or disease [1].

Oxiracetam is one of the first racetam drug varieties derived from piracetam, the “original” (and most “popular”) member of the racetam family. Racetams are widely claimed to be “nootropics”, or “cognitive-enhancing” drugs that some people believe can help improve memory and other cognitive functions [1, 2].

However, clinical studies about oxiracetam are lacking, and relatively little is known about its efficacy or relative safety in healthy human users.

Although it is a potentially serious drug with potential for misuse, adverse side-effects, and other risks, oxiracetam is currently sold as a “dietary supplement” in the U.S. However, keep in mind that the FDA has not approved this drug for any specific medical application or other use [1].

Oxiracetam Mechanism of Action

all racetams, the mechanisms behind oxiracetam are not fully understood, largely due to a lack of extensive research.

However, some early studies have pointed towards a few of the following potential mechanisms:

  • May stimulate the production of cellular energy, such as glucose [3]
  • May increase acetylcholine (ACh) activity [4]
  • May suppress pre-programmed cell death (apoptosis) in neurons [5]

Additionally, according to one early animal study in rats, oxiracetam may facilitate the influx of calcium ions into brain cells (specifically, by increasing the number of binding sites on AMPA receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate). Although mostly theoretical, some researchers have suggested that this mechanism may help facilitate communication between neurons, and may also play some role in promoting synaptic plasticity [6].

However, all of the above findings have only been reported by a handful of preliminary studies in animal models, and so it cannot be assumed that these effects would be the same in healthy human users. Much more research will be needed before any firm conclusions can be made about what effects oxiracetam has in the human brain.

Purported Effects of Oxiracetam

Listed below are some of the effects of oxiracetam that have been reported by preliminary studies so far.

While some of these early results might seem promising, the evidence is still too weak as a whole to come to any definitive conclusions about oxiracetam’s effects on the brain or cognitive ability.

In other words, these purported uses of oxiracetam should be considered as currently having insufficient evidence to support them – and much more research will still be needed to figure out exactly what effects this substance might have in healthy human users.

1) Purported Effects on Memory

According to two preliminary clinical trials in a total of 118 human dementia patients, daily treatment with 400-2,400 mg of oxiracetam was reported to improve some of these patients’ subjective ratings of their cognitive function [7, 8]. However, there were a number of adverse side effects reported, and some patients even had to drop the studies due to these side-effects.

According to another study, 1,200 mg of oxiracetam daily was reported to slightly improve symptoms in 12 patients with post-stroke dementia [9].

Another clinical trial reported that 2,400 mg/day of oxiracetam may have helped improve short-term and verbal memory in 40 elderly subjects with poor cognitive functioning [2].

Similarly, another study reported that 1,600 mg/day may have improved intellectual functioning in 29 patients with “moderate” dementia [10].

Oxiracetam has also been reported to improve verbal memory in one clinical trial of 73 patients with post-stroke or degenerative dementia [11].

However, since all of the above findings were reported in patients with dementia or other serious brain-related health conditions, it’s not possible to conclude whether these effects might be seen in healthy human users as well.

It’s also worth noting that not all early studies have reported positive findings.

For example, one study in which oxiracetam was given to 24 Alzheimer’s disease patients reported no memory benefits after a full month of treatment.

However, a different similar study did report that oxiracetam may have improved sleep and reduced anxiety in 30 Alzheimer’s disease patients [12, 13].

In addition to some preliminary human studies, there is also some early evidence from research in animals. For example, oxiracetam was reported to slightly improve long-term memory in two rat studies [14, 15].

All in all, despite some potentially promising early findings, no research in healthy human subjects have confirmed any of these effects, and so it’s not possible to come to any firm conclusion about oxiracetam’s potential cognitive effects in typical human users until much more research is done.

2) Purported Effects on Focus and Attention

According to two early trials in human patients, oxiracetam was reported to improve reaction time and attention in 96 elderly people with dementia in one clinical trial, and in 43 patients with decreased intellectual function in another [16, 17].

Additionally, oxiracetam has been reported to increased alertness, while also decreasing anxiety and tension, as well as slightly improved some cognitive functions in one other clinical trial with 289 patients with various forms of dementia [18].

Once again, however, the lack of studies in healthy human subjects means that no strong conclusions can be made about whether these effects would be seen in typical human users of oxiracetam.

3) Purported “Neuro-Protective” Effects

According to one clinical trial in 12 healthy volunteers, doses of oxiracetam between 1,600-2,400 mg were reported to counteract some of the negative cognitive effects of treatment with scopolamine, such as impaired memory [19].

However, while this finding suggests that oxiracetam may affect the brain’s memory systems somehow, preventing the negative effects of another drug is not the same thing as improving memory under normal circumstances, so this finding should be taken with a healthy grain of salt.

According to another study, oxiracetam was reported to help protect against cognitive impairment at high altitudes (at 4,000 meters) in a clinical trial with 60 healthy people. Cognitive impairment is common in people when traveling to high altitudes, due to the very low oxygen levels the brain needs to adapt to.

The authors of this study propose that oxiracetam may, therefore, help prevent cognitive problems in people when they arrive at high altitudes [20].

However, once again this is not the same thing as showing cognitive enhancement in general, so skepticism is still warranted about whether oxiracetam would have any beneficial cognitive effects under more typical circumstances.

In a clinical trial with 140 patients who suffered from strokes from high blood pressure (hypertension), a combination of oxiracetam with nerve growth factor (NGF) was reported to help with brain recovery and increased survival. This treatment was also reported to reduce inflammation and improve muscle strength, two factors that are important for rehabilitation after brain damage [21].

Finally, one animal study has reported that oxiracetam reduced brain damage and helped restore a disturbed circadian rhythm in rats with experimentally-induced strokes [22].

4) Purported Effects on Brain Blood Flow

According to one early animal study, oxiracetam was reported to help reduce damage to neurons and white matter, restore blood flow, and block the activation of the cells that scar the brain and spinal cord in rats with decreased brain blood flow. It also reportedly had some cognitive effects, such as improving spatial learning and memory, possibly due to enhancing cerebral blood flow [23].

However, much more research – especially large-scale trials in healthy human users – would be needed to fully confirm these potential effects.

SideEffects of Oxiracetam

any drug, oxiracetam has the potential to cause adverse side-effects.

Importantly, because this compound is relatively new, there is not much evidence about how safe it is for human users, or how frequently it might lead to negative side-effects.

For this reason, we would strongly advise against experimenting with this compound until more data about its safety is available.

In two of the few long-term clinical trials that have been performed so far, the following side-effects were reported [7, 1]:

  • Sleep disturbance
  • Overexcitability
  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • Elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Constipation or diarrhea

Since little clinical data about oxiracetam’s safety is available, the potential for other serious side-effects cannot be conclusively ruled out yet.

Drug Interactions of Oxiracetam

Just as data about oxiracetam’s safety is relatively lacking, so too is hard data about how it might interact with other drugs and substances – so caution is advised.

As always, it is extremely important to keep your doctor informed about any supplements or other substances you are taking in order to further minimize the risk of experiencing any adverse interactions.

According to one study, oxiracetam is cleared the body much faster by people who are taking anti-epileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or valproic acid. Whether oxiracetam might in return affect the efficacy of those medications remains unknown, so caution would be advised against this combination until more data is available [24].

One early animal study in rats has reported that oxiracetam may magnify the effects of nicotine in the brain [25].

Beyond these very preliminary studies, not much is known about oxiracetam’s potential interactions with other common medications, and caution is advised.

Dosage of Oxiracetam

Note: The information in this section contains information about the dosages commonly used by some of the early studies that have been done on oxiracetam so far. The information below is not intended as a guide for the personal use of oxiracetam, as adequate data about its potency, safety, or overall effects in healthy human populations is not currently available.

Oxiracetam typically comes in the form of powder or pre-made capsules for oral consumption.

Oxiracetam falls under the category of “dietary supplements” in the US, and is not approved by the FDA for any medical use.

The effective daily Oxiracetam doses in clinical trials ranged from 1,200 to 2,400 mg/day, often split up into 2-3 separate doses spread throughout the day. In some studies, oxiracetam was started at lower doses (400 mg/day) and gradually increased [26, 10].

Limitations and Caveats

Oxiracetam is currently not approved by the FDA for the treatment of any disease.

Available data on this drug’s effects is highly limited, and no strong conclusions about its cognitive effects or its overall safety can be made until a lot more research is done – especially large-scale clinical trials in young, healthy adults.

Therefore, many other so-called “nootropic” drugs, many of the claims made about it online are often hype, or rely on anecdotal reports from people who have personally decided to experiment with it. These claims should be treated with skepticism until more hard scientific data is available – and in the meantime, the use of oxiracetam cannot be officially recommended or endorsed.

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/oxiracetam/

Oxiracetam

What Do We Know About Oxiracetam? Purported Effects, Potential Risks, and More

The Discipline Molecule
Scientific Research
A Logic Drug
Vs Dementia
A High Altitude Hack
Mechanism of Action
A Gaba Analogue
Acetylcholine Signaling
Sleep Latency
Music Enhancer
Vs Monoxide Poisoning
Sources
Taste and Aesthetics
The Red Pill Formula for Cognitive Capital
Dosage
Cofactors
Side Effects
Oxiracetam Videos

This article is mostly going to focus on decoding what the human studies are saying about Oxiracetam and how this squares up with the anecdotal experiences of Biohackers online. For more of my own personal experiences, thoughts, and comparisons please see the written and video reviews in the sidebar.

 The DisciplineMolecule

I've been doing Oxiracetam for about 2 years now non-continuously and it has become one of my favorite smart drugs because, for me at least, it is the discipline molecule.

There are other Nootropics that are better for…
Energy… Piracetam
Creativity… L-Theanine
Problem Solving…  Phenylpiracetam
Stress Management… Adaptogens
Focus…  Modafinil
Oxiracetam… is the discipline drug.
When I'm on Oxiracetam, I just do one hundred percent of what I know I should be doing.

In our modern age discipline is something most people would prefer not to think about.
Discipline is not very sexy or fun but it is the ultimate ‪lifehack‬ because if you have discipline you get to have any other thing you desire.

  • If you don't have discipline, you are going to continually fail to accomplish your goals, you are going to feel you are bashing your head against a wall, you are always going to be starting things but rarely finishing things.
  • Lack of discipline is a really difficult problem to self-diagnose, unless you have really honest friends, that really care about you, they aren't going to call you out for your lack of discipline.
  • If you don't have discipline then you don't realize the value of it, you'll talk about working smart instead of working hard, you'll constantly be chasing new tactics and opportunities.
  • Finally, discipline is self-perpetuating, once you have some it's easy to get more, but it's really hard to acquire in the first place. I was lucky to come from a martial arts background and when I was younger I worked really challenging jobs that forced me to learn discipline.

The good news is that Oxiracetam is literally and figuratively a gateway drug to discipline.

 Scientific Research

Scientific studies and papers have demonstrated and documented that Oxiracetam can both be used to treat neurodegenerative conditions in the elderly or give an edge those who already have high functioning memories. You can find 50 different human studies done specifically on Oxiracetam on Pubmed in addition to hundreds more studies on the Racetam family of drugs.

Although you can find +90 studies and scientific papers specifically on Oxiracetam on Pubmed, it is sometimes criticized as a smart drug for having a shortage of human studies.

 A Logic Drug

The racetam is reported anecdotally all over the Internet to aid logic, mathematics or spatial intelligence intensive tasks. To quote an insightful review of the smart drug:

“Sometimes ideas and concepts will come to mind seemingly void of emotion, meaning it is (apparently) easier to get to the point of the matter. This is a difficult concept to articulate. I can see a potential advantage in those cases in where emotional bias might otherwise cloud one's logical reasoning process.”

 Vs Dementia

Oxiracetam is chemistry's gift to those suffering from cognitive decline, specifically dementia.

Dementia is a saddening age-related condition, it's most noted for its crippling impact on day to day quality of life along with robbing those afflicted of their memories.

Both forming new memories ( remembering meetings) and recalling long term memories of life experiences. The good news is that it's preventable and treatable.

Improvements in the following dimensions result from Oxiracetam…

A double-blind Italian study of 272 people suffering from Dementia conducted by the University of Torino showed that those taking Oxiracetam had significant improvements in their cognitive decline as measured by the Newcastle Memory, Information and Concentration Scale. To quote the study:

A multicentre, double-blind, between-patient study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxiracetam… A significantly different effect in favor of oxiracetam was observed on the quality of life scale, and confirmed by significant differences in some neuropsychological tests

Participants of a Danish study scored higher on tests for attention, logic, spatial orientation and concentration. The study was on those with varying moderate degrees of dementia or ADHD at dosages of 800 – 2400 Milligrams daily.

Oxiracetam is demonstrated as more effective than Piracetam according to V. Gallai et al.

 A High Altitude Hack

A recent study of 60 soldiers evaluated Oxiracetam as a treatment for cognitive decline resulting from operating at higher altitudes:

Cognitive impairment is common in people travelling to high altitude. People could still suffer cognitive dysfunction at 4,000 m high altitude despite that they have lived at 1,800 m altitude for several years…

It concluded

Both Oxiracetam and [fastigial nucleus stimulation] can reduce cognitive decline post arrival at high altitude. They could be a potential pretreatment method for cognitive dysfunction resulted from high altitude.

 Mechanism of Action

It increases spacial learning and hippocampally-mediated learning by improving protein related processes in brain membranes. This is part of Oxiracetam's purported mechanism of action, according to a study by the Institute for Behavioural Genetics at the University of Colorado:

…performance was also improved in contextual learning as determined by the fear conditioning task. The increase in spatial learning performance was correlated to an increase in membrane-bound PKC.

Notable mechanisms include:

  • Similar to Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, is an Ampakine that modulates the AMPA Receptor and promotes long term potentiation (LTP) according to a paper published in the British Journal of Pharmacology.
  • Long term potentiation, is the foundation of memory, it's the process of signal enhancement on a microscopic level between neurons. We rely on it for personal development, learning new skill sets, and much more.
  • It increases the neurotransmitters endogenous glutamate and D-Aspartic Acid which enable better signaling between hippocampal brain cells, according to an Italian study. To quote another Italian study:

Taken collectively, these results support the view that nootropic drugs act as positive modulators of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in neurons.

 A Gaba Analogue

It's also a GABA analog, GABA is an important neurotransmitter to the function of the central nervous system, it regulates excitability in our nervous systems. Which has positive implications for Neurodegenerative disorders according to a 2010 Polish study, to quote the study:

To resolve this problem, GABA analogues are being designed. Over recent years, there has been increasing interest in the synthesis and pharmacological effect of new GABA derivatives, which can be considered as potent drugs in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

 Acetylcholine Signaling

Oxiracetam has a positive effect on acetylcholine signaling but does not increase the baseline of acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine or ACh, is a chief neurotransmitter of the mind and body, it's a communicator between our muscles and brains.

It is used by the central nervous system (CNS), autonomic nervous system (ANS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and the sole neurotransmitter used in the somatic nervous system's motor division. According to a study published in Clinical Neuropharmacology, the presence of Oxiracetam increases the utilization of acetylcholine by up to 31%.

 Sleep Latency

Based upon EEG readings done by a University of Paris study, Oxiracetam does not hurt the quality of sleep but it does cause sleep latency. So it may take you longer to fall asleep if you take the smart drug later in the day. No effects of lucid dreaming are reported in scientific sources.

 Vs Monoxide Poisoning

A 2019 Chinese trial injecting Oxiracetam noted a curative effect in the treatment of delayed encephalopathy after acutecarbon monoxide poisoning.

 Music Enhancer

Anecdotally, it enhances the experience of music… To quote a review on Longecity:

“I must agree that Oxiracetam enhances sound nothing else. Those waves can almost be tasted on the tongue, inside the brain… more real than real…”

I can confirm this, even just a little bit of Oxiracetam makes music sound cooler, especially bass-heavy electronica.

 Sources

other Racetams, it is created synthetically in a lab. It differs chemically from Piracetam because of a single hydroxyl. Oxiracetam is available in two formats

  • Powdered, the most cost-effective form. You just drop a couple of hundred milligrams of the white powder under your tongue and wash it down with a beverage (I black tea).
  • Capsuled, while a bit more expensive, the most convenient form is vegan-friendly capsules which contain usually 500 milligrams. Un some Nootropics, I could not tell much difference between the effect taking it powdered vs capsuled.

The important thing with selecting a source to get Oxiracetam from is to make sure there is a certificate of analysis or spectroscopy report that verifies that it's above 97% pure and thus Pharmaceutical grade.

 Taste and Aesthetics

Good news, it doesn't taste as bad as the other Racetams, it's reported frequently as being somewhat sweet.

 The Red Pill Formula for Cognitive Capital

Pharmaceutical grade Oxiracetam is an ingredient in Caballo, the red pill formula for cognitive capital.

Professor Jerry Muller, the author of The Mind and the Market, articulated it best:

“…a period of growing equality of access to education and increasing stratification of marketplace rewards, both of which have increased the importance of human capital.

One element of human capital is cognitive ability: quickness of mind, the ability to infer and apply patterns drawn from experience, and the ability to deal with mental complexity. Another is character and social skills: self-discipline, persistence, responsibility.

And a third is actual knowledge. All of these are becoming increasingly crucial for success in the post-industrial marketplace.” (March 2013, Foreign Affairs)

The extinction of jobs comprised of rote, repetitive and unsophisticated tasks is a dire inevitability thanks to the aggressive innovation that our economy fundamentally relies on.

In the past, those of low or average intelligence were practically guaranteed an unremarkable life of labor in a factory or a field, fast forward to the very near future and nothing is guaranteed.

The only hope is to stay well ahead of the curve of automation. It's time to invest in your own cognitive capital.

 Cofactors

Since it promotes Acetylcholine but is not a building block of the important neurotransmitter, it's a great idea to take with an Acetylcholine precursor Alpha GPC or a Choline supplement.

 Side Effects

the other Racetams Oxiracetam is a high return, very low-risk tool for a Limitless Mind. The most common complaint with Racetams is a headache if you do too much.

There are some anecdotal reports of irritation while dosed on it, the theory on this is that it is because the greater clarity makes one more aware of negative emotions.

Source: https://www.limitlessmindset.com/nootropic-ingredients/846-oxiracetam

Kratomystic enhancers sold from Mission Gorge mailbox

What Do We Know About Oxiracetam? Purported Effects, Potential Risks, and More

Feeling feebleminded? Take a smart pill. For more than 60 years, I thought smart pills were a joke, as in, “Darn! I forgot to take my smart pills today.”

Only lately did I realize there are — purportedly — such things. In polite company, they are called “cognitive enhancers” or “neuroenhancement” medicines. There is another word for them: nootropics. College students gulp them before an exam. Executives take them before a meeting that will be a snoozer.

Physicians and regulators are wary of them. Some universities try to ban them. Smart pills apparently have salutary effects for people with Alzheimer’s disease or narcolepsy or for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

But the American Medical Association says that nootropics, which “include a variety of prescription drugs, supplements, or other substances,” should not be used for “otherwise healthy individuals.

” So-called smart pills carry risks, but “they do not make people smarter.”

Says sciencebasedmedicine.org, a watchdog organization, “Nootropics are an emerging class of drugs… which are used for enhancement of memory and cognition, sexual performance, athletic performance or musculature.… [They] are being abused and hyped without adequate evidence.” Importantly, they are sold over the internet “without adequate regulation.”

And now we come to San Diego. Until its original website was taken down after the Reader began looking into the company, TruNootropics claimed that it was “the best place to buy nootropics online.

” The company boasted, “Based San Diego, California, TruNootropics is the top-rated supplier of highest quality nootropics” and “a leader in nootropic research. We only carry the highest quality powders that have passed rigorous testing.

” Among the products it claimed to sell were Oxiracetam, Noopept, Aniracetam, Adrafinil, Piracetam, Phenibut, and Pyritinol. “Our shipping center is located in beautiful San Diego, California.”

TruNootropics was (or may still be) a subsidiary of TruSciences, Inc., 6465 Reflection Drive, San Diego, CA 92124. Hold on. The building at 6465 Reflection Drive is part of an apartment complex in Grantville. There is no TruSciences or TruNootropics in the building.

Until the Reader began snooping around, the California secretary of state listed Trusciences, Inc., as an Irvine company with Adi Mangafic as chief executive and Joseph Fronke as chief financial officer. I reached Fronke at his Orange County home.

He and Mangafic went to high school together and later briefly shared a room. Fronke once lived on Reflection Drive. “I have nothing to do with that company,” says Fronke. “[Mangafic] used my name without my permission.… He had bad credit and wanted me to cosign [a financial document].

Apparently he used my name. He never sold a dime…not one single thing.… He told me TruSciences was a nothing.” Fronke says he called the secretary of state’s office to get his name off the listing.

TruSciences is now listed with the state secretary of state as a California company with Mangafic as its agent for service of processing.

I briefly reached Mangafic, who also lives in Orange County. “TruSciences, Inc., should be dissolved. We never started the business. It was a venture we were going to do but never got into it. The website never went live.” That’s odd, because I easily found it and wondered about its many boasts about being the top supplier.

Fronke says that Mangafic and two others are now deeply involved in a company with the elegant appellation of Kratomystic Premium Ethnobotanicals. That company, too, has stated on a website that it is based in San Diego — 6549 Mission Gorge Road #253. That address belongs to a Postal Annex mail drop, which, of course, won’t talk about any of its customers.

Kratomystic, too, is full of itself: “[W]e are known to be the leading provider of ethnobotanical herb[s], serving our clients with a variety of premium strains and extracts,” it brags.

“We offer the best products in the market, which have passed top-notch quality assurance tests to ensure that clients get the best.

Our service is impeccable, we believe in timely delivery, professionalism, research, competitive pricing, and exceeding our customer expectation is our top priority. We have become one of the most preferred choices for botanical research.”

Wow! Kratomystic executives must take their own smart pills.

This company says it is in the kratom business. Kratom is a tropical evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia.

The Drug Enforcement Administration website says kratom “has stimulant effects in low doses and sedative effects in high doses.

” To me, that suggests it makes you smart if you take a little bit but makes you dumb if you take too much. The drug administration warns, “It can lead to psychotic symptoms, and psychological and physiological dependence.”

In early 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that federal marshals at the agency’s request had seized 90,000 bottles of dietary supplements containing kratom. “We have identified kratom as a botanical substance that could pose a risk to public health,” said the agency.

The Drug Enforcement Administration, citing “an imminent hazard to public safety,” began to ban it late last year. It was cited as a substance with “no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse.” It was put on a Schedule I list along with heroin, LSD, and ecstasy.

But kratom supporters rallied in front of the White House, and 142,000 people signed a petition asking the federal government to change its mind.

Backers argued that kratom can help those addicted to opioids recover.

The American Kratom Association argued that the substance, which it calls no more harmful than coffee, can excel in “management of minor pain” and promotion of “a sense of health and well-being.”

The Drug Enforcement Administration has put any action on hold for now, as it awaits word from the Food and Drug Administration.

Kratomystic is not listed with the California secretary of state. Mangafic says the company sells “herbal powders, aromas,” but that is a euphemistic description of a company allegedly selling kratom-based products with names Borneo White, Green Malaysian, Maeng Da, Red Bali, and Ultra Enhanced Indo.

“We don’t conduct business in San Diego,” he says, but that is not surprising, because San Diego bans kratom. Mangafic said he would have his lawyer call me and hurried off the phone. The lawyer didn’t call. I emailed Mangafic and phoned Fronke twice and asked him to have Mangafic call me.

That was to no avail.

The Los Angeles and San Diego offices of the Drug Enforcement Administration have nothing they can say about Mangafic, Fronke, TruSciences, TruNootropics, or Kratomystic.

In late September, the Food and Drug Administration, along with international regulators working through Interpol, sent warning letters to 400 websites in search of rogue online outfits selling dangerous drugs.

These so-called San Diego companies weren’t on the list.

Source: https://www.sandiegoreader.com/news/2017/oct/25/citylights-kratomystic-enhancers/

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