Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)

Phenylpiracetam Reviews Challenged: How Good Is It? –

Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)

Phenylpiracetam reviews always claim that it’s a powerful stimulant that boosts cognition, memory, improves your mood, and helps improve your physical energy levels as well. That almost sounds too good to be true.

So what’s the deal with Phenylpiracetam? I’m going to talk you through the effects and potential benefits of using Phenylpiracetam in this review. I’m going to stack that up alongside telling you about the side effects of using it as well.

Plus I’ll talk about the correct Phenylpiracetam dosage you should be using, compare it to a couple of other popular racetams, and I’ll also tell you where to buy phenylpiracetam powder.

What Is Phenylpiracetam?

Now, this may actually sound a bit strange, but phenylpiracetam was developed at the Russian Academy of sciences during 1983. It’s actually a derivative, a modified version, of the classic nootropic drug piracetam.

It was developed to issue to Soviet cosmonauts, to help with the stresses of traveling into space and operating there. It was used to help combat the fear of never coming home, the fear of exit, and re-entry into the earth atmosphere, and other stressful moments during space exploration.

And it works. Several cosmonauts have described taking phenylpiracetam and described how it completely removes anxiety and stress, calm them down, and allowed them to focus on the tasks at hand. In fact, it’s a standard component of Russian space travel medical kits even now. So there must be something in this stuff to make it be considered so important.

Phenylpiracetam is a derivative of piracetam. But it has a derivative of its own. Phenylpiracetam hydrazide is virtually the same, but the chemical structure is slightly different. It was developed around the same time as phenylpiracetam. It adds a more stimulating element to this chemical nootropic.

Effects Of Phenylpiracetam

Human research into the effects of phenylpiracetam is limited, but there have been several major animal studies undertaken and limited human trials. It’s available on prescription in many parts of Eastern Europe, and as we’ve already said, it’s used by cosmonauts with no side-effects.

Before we talk about the exact effects you would experience when taking a dose of phenylpiracetam, let’s look at the benefits that are being linked to dosing it:

  • Is being researched as something that can help with Parkinson’s disease
  • Is a stimulant that helps to deal with extreme environments and stress
  • Can reverse the depressive effects of benzodiazepines
  • Increases operant behavior (mechanical learning)
  • Has anticonvulsant properties
  • Has been linked to preventing retrograde amnesia
  • Can increase resistance in the brain to toxic effects

So phenylpiracetam is being linked to helping with a lot of different conditions, and also being linked to reversing deteriorating brain health as we age. So things are looking really good for long-term use.

But what about the effects of actually using it, how will you benefit when you have taken the dose of phenylpiracetam? Well, the effects of a dose of phenylpiracetam are:

  • It acts as a psychostimulant, in a similar way to Adderall. Increased locomotor activity in animal studies has confirmed the effects that astronauts described. It can make you feel far more alert but in a calm way.
  • It’s known to increase memory capacity. People using phenylpiracetam experience better memory recall, and enhanced memory storage. In fact, and I can confirm this, it can actually help long-term memories to be recalled more easily. Things you forgot about years ago suddenly pop into your head for the first time. It’s weird but wonderful.
  • phenylpiracetam can help with anxiety and depressive disorders. Studies and practical use have shown it can lift the mood and calm people down significantly. In fact, research into using phenylpiracetam to treat sleep disorders has found that it may act as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI), basically working in the same way as some antidepressant medications.
  • Mental sharpness is dramatically increased. You will think quicker, recall better, speak more fluently and directly. In tests, in social situations, you’ll have the ability to think, interact, store and recall information faster than you can normally.
  • Animal studies and anecdotal evidence has shown that it increases desire and motivation. In the studies, animals were prepared to jump through more hoops, do a bigger workload than normal, in order to obtain food. In fact, studies have concluded that phenylpiracetam is more powerful than amphetamines for increasing operant behavior.

How Phenylpiracetam Works

Phenylpiracetam is piracetam, but with an extra phenyl group added, hence the name.

This additional group enhances the body’s ability to absorb fats, lipids, and oils in the body. This creates a more potent version of piracetam. It also helps the drug to cross the blood-brain barrier more easily.

Its core mechanisms of action are around increasing the production of neurotransmitters. It increases the production of glutamate and increases the retention of dopamine, which is key to increased motivation, memory, and attention. It also helps to regulate emotion.

Dopamine is also a precursor of norepinephrine, a key stimulatory neurotransmitter. It’s linked to increased blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar. That’s where the increases in physical and emotional energy, and stamina, come from when consuming phenylpiracetam.

So look, I set out to challenge phenylpiracetam reviews, and the truth is that the positive ones are right. This is fantastic for boosting cognitive and physical function, raising mood, and doing all that with very few side-effects.

What Are The Side effects Of Phenylpiracetam?

In common with all racetams, phenylpiracetam produces headaches, especially with new users. These can be eradicated by taking a choline supplement.

There does appear to be a definite “day after” syndrome when using phenylpiracetam. The side-effects the day after taking it conclude feeling irritated, and not thinking clearly, as neurotransmitter levels adjust.

But other than that, there are very few reports of significant side-effects from using phenylpiracetam, and the long-term use of it seems to be positive in relation to brain health. I’ve certainly not experienced any side effects other than headaches in two years of infrequent, responsible usage.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage Information

There is no precise dose of phenylpiracetam, so phenylpiracetam dosage information is always personal.

The average dosage range, using my own personal experience, evidence from online, and from people who have had it on prescription in eastern Europe, is between 100-250 milligrams per dose, taken up to 3 times per day.

The maximum recommended phenylpiracetam dosage per day is therefore 750 mg. I’d recommend you start with a 100 mg per dose, as it can create a tolerance to some of the effects if you dose too high, and too frequently.

Creating A Phenylpiracetam Stack

In this brief challenge of phenylpiracetam reviews, I don’t have time to do a detailed guide to creating a range of phenylpiracetam stacks.

However, a classic phenylpiracetam stack that enhances its overall nootropic and physical reach is:

  • 300 mg Alpha GPC
  • Choline Supplement
  • 100 mg phenylpiracetam
  • 100 mg Sulbutiamine

This classic phenylpiracetam stack can really help students and athletes. It dramatically increases focus, energy, and motivation. You’ll need less sleep, you’ll have a better mood, and your stamina will dramatically increase.

Aniracetam Vs Phenylpiracetam

Although both Aniracetam and phenylpiracetam are very similar chemically, there are more negative study conclusions around Aniracetam.

In some studies, Aniracetam was not found to decrease anxiety when compared to a placebo group. This was not the case with phenylpiracetam, so it may be a better option if you want to use a racetam to confront anxiety or depression. However, that information is contradicted by other people, so you really would have to try them both work out what’s best for you.

Pramiracetam Vs Phenylpiracetam

I’ll be honest, in line with other good quality phenylpiracetam reviews, I’ve found nothing which suggests there’s any benefit to taking phenylpiracetam over pramiracetam. Studies and anecdotal evidence both come to the same conclusions around the potential for it to enhance cognitive and physical function, repair brain damage, lower anxiety and reduce depression.

The dosage range for both of these drugs is the same, and the potential positive and negative benefits at the same. So it really comes down to trying them both, and seeing which is best tolerated by you.

Where To Buy Phenylpiracetam

I to stick to what I know, and when I actually found real phenylpiracetam for sale, I decided to stick with it.

So look, if you’re wondering where to buy phenylpiracetam, I’m recommending you start with the online store from the USA that I use.

Umbrella Labs sell from the domain, but don’t let that confuse you. Yes, they sell SARMs (used in bodybuilding) that are excellent quality, but they also sell 100% pure nootropics as well.

You can buy a 2.5 g container of really high-quality phenylpiracetam for just $16.99.

You also get a 100% moneyback guarantee, the purity is also guaranteed, plus you get free shipping. They are reliable, and I’ve bought phenylpiracetam from them on several occasions.

For me, phenylpiracetam, alongside SARMs, really increase my ability to work out at the gym and packed me on loads of muscle. I also found that it enhanced my thought processes and memory, which was perfect when the pressure was on at work.

So look, my conclusion here is that phenylpiracetam reviews are right. It really works, and I do recommend you experience the effects yourself.



Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)

Phenylpiracetam is a drug so powerfully stimulating, the Olympic committee has banned its use for athletes competing at this high level. While it is not legally banned or inherently dangerous, this should tell you something about the efficacy of phenylpiracetam for enhancing feelings of stimulation. What’s the true power of phenylpiracetam?

A lack of scientific research stymies any strong recommendation of phenylpiracetam, but the evidence that does exist looks promising.

One study showed phenylpiracetam is a cognitive enhancer to improve with general cognition and learning [1].

Beyond learning and memory, which is common amongst the racetam family, there are benefits as an antidepressant as well [2]. Studies showed that using phenylpiracetam can reduce symptoms of depression.

What phenylpiracetam lacks in statistics, data, and research, it makes up for in anecdotal evidence. This nootropic compound is among the most stimulating of racetams, which makes it both a great focus and concentration tool as well as a memory and learning enhancer.

Also Known As

Phenotropil, Carphedon, (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

Phenylpiracetam Benefits

What makes Phenylpiracetam one of the best Nootropics? It is 100% bioavailable when taken by mouth, is easily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood brain barrier very easily.

Phenylpiracetam benefits are believed to come from the fact that it acts as a neuromodulator, while increasing dopamine and noradrenaline levels.

Developers added a phenyl molecule group to the Piracetam compound and this is primarily responsible for the additional benefits.

The addition of the phenyl group improves it in the following two ways:

  1. More Potent – Increased potency and stronger effects by allowing the molecule to pass the brain-blood barrier (BBB) easier.
  2. Energizing – More stimulating effects due to a closer resemblance to a phenethylamine substance, such as Adderall.

Phenylpiracetam has a number of other benefits as well, including an increase in the ability to problem solve and to attention-switch in people who suffer from asthenia (a condition that causes lack of muscular strength, fatigue and dizziness) and a reduction in the effects of sleep deprivation.

  • Improve memory retention, consolidate and recall memory
  • Increases learning capacity
  • Boosts Alertness and Focus
  • Enhances Physical Performance
  • Prevent and reduce the effects of Amnesia.
  • Elevates Mood
  • Suppress anxiety and fear
  • Reduces effects of sleep deprivation
  • Increased cold tolerance

Primarily, most racetams, phenylpiracetam is an effective cognitive enhancer. One study showed that people suffering from cognitive decline (from brain lesions and epilepsy) saw significant improvement in their mental and cognitive abilities through the use of phenylpiracetam [3]. Another study showed a 7% greater recovery compared to a control [4].

Beyond improving cognitive abilities, phenylpiracetam is also a useful combatant against cognitive decline. One of the main phenylpiracetam benefits is to reduce the rate of cognitive decline [5]. Thus. it is as much a neuroprotective agent as it is a memory enhancer.

For the brain, the phenylpiracetam benefit most people often overlook is the anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. A study that focused on anxiety as a symptom of stroke found that phenylpiracetam was an effective tool for recovery [6]. While some other racetams have this as an off-hand property, phenylpiracetam is used for this purpose if anecdotal reports are to be believed.

There aren’t any well-researched studies on the subject, but community members who have used phenylpiracetam for physical stimulation have been pleasantly surprised. The Olympic Anti-Doping Agency has banned the use of phenylpiracetam for their athletes for these properties. In the next section, we’ll tackle the impact this has on the brain and concentration.

Phenylpiracetam for Focus

According to scientistific terms, “psychostimulation” is synonymous with focus and concentration. One study showed that phenylpiracetam was so stimulating to the brain, it created sleep disturbances for the participants [7]. This is assuredly not proof of the concentration and focus benefits, but this is a similar symptoms as many other smart drugs that tout the same thing.

In any case, the anecdotal reports fill in many of the gaps for phenylpiracetam. Supposedly, people use phenylpiracetam for focus often in order to get more from their work. Compared to caffeine and any other racetam, it is stronger even if it lasts a shorter period.

Piracetam vs Phenylpiracetam

Piracetam is the grandfather of the racetam family and nootropics as a whole. Phenylpiracetam is structurally similar to piracetam, but with significantly enhanced effects. The added “phenyl” group is the only chemical difference comparing piracetam vs phenylpiracetam, but the effects of this phenyl group are quite large.

As mentioned above, the stimulation associated with the phenyl group can be quite strong. Speculation suggests this chemical structure allows the drug to cross the blood-brain barrier more easily and supply piracetam to designated regions, but this is untested.

According to neuroscientist Dr. Andrew Hill, the phenyl group acts similar to cocaine within the brain. This may account for the stimulation aspect, but it comes at a cost.

Side Effects of Phenylpiracetam

Any nootropic, especially one that is stimulating, has the potential for side effects. The phenylpiracetam studies on sleep and psychostimulation prove one of the main problems can be insomnia. People who take phenylpiracetam too late in the evening or afternoon might be unable to get quality sleep due these effects [8].

Additionally, standard racetam side effects also apply to users of phenylpiracetam. Some people struggle with a headache due to a lack of acetylcholine (remedied by alpha GPC or citicoline). Other people have phenylpiracetam side effects such as overstimulation or jitteriness, nausea, or irritability.

When a user experiences phenylpiracetam side effects similar to overstimulation or irritability, it may be a sign to reduce the phenylpiracetam dosage rather than quit outright.

Some public figures, such as Dave Asprey, have popularized this drug but at a high dose (he has recounted consuming 500 mg).

This is considerably higher than the recommended starting dose and it would be common to experience phenylpiracetam side effects as you will read below.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

The phenylpiracetam dosage varies depending on the needs and studies, but some general reference exists. If you are looking for pure stimulation, doses of 100 – 200 mg seem to work well. The total effective dose is around 200 – 600 mg per day taken in 2 – 3 doses.

According to the scientific literature, patients were given anywhere between 200 and 400 mg for the purpose of cognitive enhancement so it’s good to start in this range [9].

[Editor's Note: The phenylpiracetam dosage will depend highly upon each individual. I did QEEG testing on my brain while on phenylpiracetam and Dr. Hill was surprised that my phenylpiracetam dosage was as high as 300 mg.]

How to Take Phenylpiracetam

This drug is particularly potent, which means it may be useful to learn how to take phenylpiracetam before diving in. Not everyone needs to go through this process, but for the risk-averse, this “Shulgin method” (named after psychedelic researcher Alexander Shulgin) may be helpful.

Here are three simple steps for your protection:

  1. Consume a microdose – a dose of 5-10 mg of phenylpiracetam will rule out any allergies to the substance. This may be done via powder or breaking the capsule open.
  2. Consume 1/2 a dose – given the lowest dose range is 100 mg, this might be a 50 mg dose to make sure you do not react negatively.
  3. Consume 1 full low dose – finally, use 100 mg as recommended and experience the psycho-effects.

Only after this start consuming higher doses as you feel necessary.

Nootropic Stacks with Phenylpiracetam

Most of the nootropics we would recommend stacking with phenylpiracetam are choline related. We've described both alpha GPC and citicoline, but there are other options centrophenoxine that interact with the cholinergic system.

Adding more stimulation to phenylpiracetam (in the form of stimulants modafinil, adrafinil, or armodafinil) may be too much for some people. The effects of phenylpiracetam are strong and can last for many hours. Adding doses of other high-powered stimulants is often not a good idea.

The unique stack blend Nootroo includes phenylpiracetam with the basic caffeine and L-theanine blend, which may be too much stimulation for some, but is good for others.

Most Ayurvedic herbs should be okay alongside phenylpiracetam. Things ashwagandha to help reduce anxiety may even be synergistic depending on how much anxiety results from using this smart drug.

How and Where to Buy Phenylpiracetam

Un pramiracetam, the phenylpiracetam powder is not terrible tasting, but it is not entirely enjoyable. Phenylpiracetam capsules will be a better experience than the powder if you are looking to buy phenylpiracetam online.

Phenylpiracetam is a new nootropic that has only recently gained popularity due to anecdotal reports on internet communities Reddit and Longecity. Because it is new and unregulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it is a good idea to buy phenylpiracetam with caution and care.

There are no phenylpiracetam Amazon products because that online shopping platform has banned some of the grey area products. As nice as it would be to purchase phenylpiracetam Amazon products for the safety and convenience, it does not look there will be a product of that kind anytime soon.

This smart drug is extremely stimulatory and potent, which means one false purchase could land you in an uncomfortable position. The majority of phenylpiracetam suppliers are reputable, but it is best to find the most reputable with community trust and testing (such as assay and heavy metals).

This is why we consistently recommend Pure Nootropics phenylpiracetam. They do assay testing as well as metal analysis for most of their products.

Selected Community Experiences

“Had an amazing basketball session with phenylpiracetam earlier in the evening. Really does make for higher percentages of the ball dropping through the hoop…this is a nice loose and deliberate feeling with my body. All the muscle memory is immediate or something. I get why it's on the banned substances list.” [10] – 150c_vapour

“Phenylpiracetam never ceases to amaze me. I have been feeling very shitty lately. Depressed, low motivation, fatigue, anti social etc. I am definitely in the midst of some sort of defecit. We'll today that changed when I took 100 mgs of phenylpiracetam. I was laughing with friends, I felt GOOD.” [11] – Chokaholic

“I've been experimenting with both Phenylpiracetam and modafinil (200mg) and subjectively I notice that the effect is basically the same. I know if I've taken modafinil whereas Phenylpiracetam is more subtle but all in all the effects are very similar.” [12] – gum11

Phenylpiracetam Reviews

The phenylpiracetam reviews in the above “selected community experiences” are important because there is little scientific research on this drug on healthy adults. Almost all of the phenylpiracetam effects are studied on patients that have senile dementia or some cognitive deficit rather than looking for cognitive enhancement.

While the phenylpiracetam reviews are certainly anecdotal, they allow us to better understand how it might interact with a healthy adult brain similar to the thousands of other users. The science is still important as we can use the information to understand mechanisms, but the phenylpiracetam reviews give us another picture as well.

Author's Thoughts on Phenylpiracetam

This is by far my favorite of the racetams simply because I already feel my memory is quite strong. I this better than pramiracetam because it is more stimulating and has a stronger effect, but it is definitely something I don’t take every day.

I’d say phenylpiracetam is comparable to Modafinil in some ways, though quite different as far as how they work. If you are interested in trying phenylpiracetam, my personal recommendation would be to use it in smaller doses at first and then increase the dose.

The reason being, there is a tendency to take a lot of phenylpiracetam given how relatively non-stimulating other racetams are (such as piracetam). At least, that’s been my experience.

Finally, if you do any kind of physical activity at all, this stuff is a great tool. I don’t particularly need a pre-workout other than coffee, but this stuff inadvertently is great for that specific purpose.

Mansal Denton, Nootropedia Contributor

References (Click to Expand)Other Scientific Resources (Click to Expand)


The Nootropics Knowledge Base

Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)

Welcome to the Pure Nootropics Knowledge Base!

The purpose of this section is to help you better understand nootropic compounds in general and the specifics of some of the nootropics we carry. For someone new to nootropics, we suggest you start here:

Before getting too far we want to mention that nootropics are a very subjective experience and while a particular compound works for one individual it may not work for another, this is why we put together a tutorial for tracking mental improvements with nootropics that you can use to track the efficacy of a particular compound.

For anyone seeking general overall cognitive enhancement, optimum nutrition, diet, and lifestyle are the best starting points.

This includes simple things getting a proper amount of sleep (check out our sleep guide for tips on falling asleep and staying asleep) and getting enough micro-nutrients (see our posts on the importance of Choline, getting your omega 3’s, and why you should be supplementing Vitamin D for more information, as a large number of individuals are deficient in one of these).

For more specific information about particular nootropics, each section below covers:

  • Different decisions when buying nootropics
  • Interactions with other compounds
  • Side effects / benefits
  • Studies

There are a wide variety of nootropics as it is a broad category that encompasses many synthetic and natural compounds. The term was derived in the early 1970s and some of the most popular nootropics are part of the “racetam” family. Note that we provide more information about each item on its respective product page under the “full analysis” tab.


The first and most popular of these is called piracetam, which was discovered nearly 4 decades ago as a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA. This nootropic is a popular option among elderly and youth a because of the intense memory enhancement and improved learning ability for users.

Many people use piracetam as a beginner nootropic to have a product that is potent and effective, but is not overwhelming. Starting with piracetam is known to be a great beginner stack on many of the most well-established communities, such as Longecity and Reddit.

Even though piracetam is not extremely potent, it may create feelings of mood enhancement, reduced anxiety, and even improves focus and concentration in some individuals.


This is the second most common racetam and it was discovered not long after piracetam. Aniracetam is a very fast acting nootropic that improves memory formation and learning, but also increases stimulation. Because it has a high bioavailability (meaning it absorbs quickly), it is fast acting and more potent than piracetam, but it requires more doses throughout the day.

For most people who are trying to improve mental energy, get some stimulation, and improve learning, aniracetam is a great choice. It is often used in addition to piracetam as part of a nootropic stack that is focused on racetams.


Often considered one of the most potent racetams, oxiracetam has a long history of neuro protection. Many studies show that oxiracetam can not only halt, but also reverse neurological decline. Sometimes this can translate into reversing damage from trauma (whether chemical or physical) that people suffer earlier in life.

This cognitive enhancer has been studied for a variety of different cognitive functions. It is also useful for younger individuals who are seeking enhanced memory and learning. For most people, this is an advanced, but very safe nootropic addition.


Considered 60 times more potent than piracetam, this nootropic is a great boost of mental energy with the same memory enhancement benefits of the entire racetam family. Phenylpiracetam is so stimulating, the olympic organizations have banned the substance for athletes, but that doesn’t mean you cannot use it to your advantage!

As a highly potent nootropic, phenylpiracetam is also very bioavailable which means taking smaller doses more frequently is a good idea.


Alpha GPC

Finding a choline source for your racetams is imperative because this supplement is a precursor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

This brain chemical is often responsible for creating memories and it is how piracetam and other nootropics are most effective in helping you to learn.

Without adequate choline, it is possible to suffer from headaches and other jaw pains that are side effects of low acetylcholine.

It is best to use two types of choline called CDP choline (citicholine) and alpha GPC, which are higher in their bioavailability and will provide more raw choline for you to improve your memory and prevent side effects.


Another great nootropic is noopept, which is extremely potent. It is considered 1000 times more potent than piracetam, which means the doses are lower and it is important to be precise! Noopept will also help to improve memory formation and learning ability, but it does so through the glutamate receptors as opposed to the mechanisms of racetams.

This is a great cognitive enhancer to use if you want a potent stimulant that will also help to improve your memory. Some people even consider noopept a great way of reducing anxiety and improving general mood, but it will depend on your biochemistry how you react.


This is an all-natural amino acid found in green tea. L-theanine is associated with more alpha brain waves, which are correlated with relaxation. For most people, relaxed brain waves are different from the common high stimulation environment we all live in!

Combining L-theanine with a morning cup of coffee is considered one of the best nootropics for beginners who are interested in focus and attention. Numerous studies show the combined positive effects of caffeine and L-theanine, which are more profound than either of the two alone!


Derived from the nutrient thiamine (vitamin B1), sulbutiamine is a well-absorbed supplement that more easily crosses the blood-brain barrier.

Japanese scientists in the early 20th century tried to develop synthetic options to consume more thiamine because deficiency was so common.

Finally, in 1936 sulbutiamine was discovered and has been used due to its ability to pass the blood brain barrier.

It wasn’t until recently when the brain enhancing effects of sulbutiamine became more apparent. It is a treatment for fatigue (both mental and physical) and there is evidence it supports brain function through neuroprotection, improves memory retention, and has a positive effect on mental energy.


Researchers during the Soviet Union were hard at work developing treatments to improve brain function and one of their results was phenibut. This derivative of GABA (a chemical in your brain) easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and may be beneficial for stress-relief and improving mood.

According to a study in 2013, it is a powerful stress-reducing substance, but needs to be cycled in order to prevent dependence.


One of the most popular cognitive enhancers on the market is within the family called “Modafinil”. Many people avoid buying Modafinil because it is a scheduled substance in the United States, but one alternative is Adrafinil.

Adrafinil is metabolized in the liver into Modafinil and improves wakefulness and concentration in order to complete certain tasks.

Users of Adrafinil fin that it has slightly different cognitive effects than Modafinil even though it is supposed to be converted into Modafinil in the body.

In addition to being a wakefulness agent, Adrafinil has been noted as a tool for improving concentration, focus, and alertness beyond that of caffeine. Best of all, it is unscheduled in the United States so no shady online buys from a pharmacy you might not be able to trust!

Bacopa Monnieri

Ancient Ayurvedic wisdom is on heavy display with bacopa monnieri. This plant-based nootropic has been used by Indians to develop improved memory and cognitive function for over 3000 years.

Some claim this Ayurvedic remedy has been around for nearly 5000.

Because of the popularity in Indian culture and cognitive medicine, it has garnered much attention in the western research laboratory as well.

Un some of the Ayurvedic options on the market, bacopa monnieri has had spectacular scientific trials that prove efficacy with a number of different indicators. Some of the most successful nootropic blends, such as Alpha Brain, are using this as a core ingredient to improve cognitive function.


This traditional Indian remedy for anxiety has received much attention due to its popularity in Asia. Since modern research in nootropic products began, ashwagandha has consistently proven itself as one of the more popular methods of improving mental performance by reducing the anxiety and stress being caused to an individual.

There is preliminary evidence that ashwagandha can also improve certain aspects of attention and focus, but they are less well-studied as the anti-anxiety effects. Not only can ashwagandha help you to improve focus and reduce anxiety, but promising research shows ashwagandha can be a powerful anti-inflammatory agent as well.


The amino acid, L-Tyrosine, is a non-essential amino acid that acts as a precursor for certain brain neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Evidence thus far shows that L-Tyrosine is an effective way to improve working memory while under stressful conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that it is able to enhance creative thought!

Modern humans often get far less sleep than they should and L-Tyrosine can be a useful answer. It will ameliorate the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation to help you stay fresh, alert, and productive throughout the day.


Can Aniracetam Boost Memory or Brain Function?

Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)


Aniracetam (also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a type of drug known as a nootropic that is said to improve cognitive function (including memory, creativity, and motivation) in healthy people.

Although aniracetam is available as a prescription drug in Europe, it has not been approved for such use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Instead, aniracetam is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement, where it is used by some to “boost” mental sharpness or memory.

  • Ampamet
  • Draganon
  • Memodrin
  • Referan
  • Sarpul

Aniracetam is closely related to other nootropic drugs such as piracetam, fasoracetam, phenylpiracetam, and adrafinil.

Aniracetam was first introduced in the 1970s when it was found that the drug could influence a receptor in the central nervous system called the αlpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor. The AMPA receptor largely regulates the speed by which nerve signals move between neurons (nerve cells).

By stimulating AMPA receptors, it is believed that aniracetam can sharpen memory, improve concentration, and increase mental alertness.

Some manufacturers have asserted that aniracetam has positive effects on people with clinical depression, Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), motion sickness, and sleep disorders. Many of these claims are poorly supported by research; others border on pseudoscience.

To date, there is little clinical evidence that aniracetam can treat any medical condition, mild or severe.

Research studies into the benefits of aniracetam on cognitive function have largely been mixed and contentious.

One the one hand, a highly-published study in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics reported that elderly adults with mild cognitive impairment experienced improvements in mood and cognitive function after having been treated with a daily 1,500-milligram dose of aniracetam for one year. According to the research team, aniracetam worked better than cholinesterase inhibitors traditionally used to treat Alzheimer's disease and with far fewer side effects.

On the other hand, a 2014 study in PLoS One found no such benefit in mice provided aniracetam. Neither did aniracetam improve the short-term memory in pigeons in a 2019 study in PLoS One nor enhance learning, memory, or anxiety in mice in a 2017 study in F1000 Research.

While it could be argued that animal studies have less inherent value than a human trial, they tend to have better controls and measures, especially with regards to functional memory. By contrast, tests Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) used in humans are prone to biases and often wide variations in conclusions.

The very fact that the human study listed above was not randomized or that the placebo group chose not to take aniracetam suggests biases that cast doubts on the researchers' conclusions. In the end, the study was flawed both in its design and conclusions.

On the whole, the current body of research does not support claims that aniracetam can improve cognitive function, mood, or memory in either healthy people or those with cognitive dysfunction.

Little is known about the long-term safety of aniracetam. Clinical studies involving the use of aniracetam for up to one year suggest that it is well-tolerated with generally mild side effects, including insomnia, headaches, anxiety, irritability, vertigo, nausea, and diarrhea.

Aniracetam is known to interact with certain medications. In most cases, it will amplify the action of the associated drug, increasing the risk of side effects. The ly drug-drug interactions include:

  • Anticoagulants Coumadin (warfarin)
  • Anticonvulsants gabapentin
  • Antidepressants Wellbutrin (bupropion)
  • Antihistamines Zyrtec (cetirizine) and Claritin (loratadine)
  • Antipsychotics Zyprexa (olanzapine)
  • Anesthetics propofol
  • Benzodiazepines Valium (diazepam) and Xanax (alprazolam)
  • HIV drugs Sustiva (efavirenz)
  • Opiates Oxycontin (oxycodone)
  • Sedatives Ambien (zolpidem)

In some cases, separating the doses by two to four hours may mitigate the interaction. In others, a dose adjustment or substitution may be needed. More often than not, it is better to discontinue aniracetam rather than the prescribed drug.

Due to the lack of safety research, aniracetam should be avoided during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Its safety in children has also not been established.

Aniracetam is widely available for purchase online. It may also be found in certain natural food stores or shops specializing in nutritional supplements. You do not need a prescription to obtain aniracetam in the United States.

Aniracetam is most commonly sold as a 750-milligram capsule or in powder form. It is also included in many “brain-boosting” supplements. While there are no guidelines for the appropriate use of aniracetam, clinical studies have used up to 1,500 milligrams daily with no notable side effects.

As a general rule, never exceed the recommended dose on the product label. This doesn't mean that the dose is either safe or effective, but it may reduce the risk of side effects. There is no evidence that increasing doses will increase the benefits of aniracetam.

Before starting aniracetam, talk to your doctor about any medical concerns you have and why aniracetam may be a reasonable option.

Self-treating a medical condition, particularly one involving memory loss or cognition, is never a good idea. Doing so may delay the diagnosis of a potentially more serious and/or treatable condition.

Dietary supplements are not strictly regulated in the United States, and the quality can vary from one brand to the next.

To ensure quality and safety, opt for brands that have been voluntarily submitted for testing by an independent certifying body the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), NSF International, or ConsumerLab.

Certification provides you greater assurance that the supplement contains the ingredients listed on the product label and nothing else.

As a general rule, avoid dietary supplements that make health claims or promise cures. Dietary supplements do not need to undergo the stringent testing that prescription drugs do. As such, any claims tend to be unsupported or exaggerated.

Nootropic drugs, also known as “smart drugs,” are loosely defined as any substance that can sharpen the mind or memory. These include stimulants caffeine that are known to provide a short-term burst of energy and mental clarity.

Other agents are not so benign in their effects. Certain stimulants Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Provigil (armodafinil) used to treat ADHD can be considered nootropic. While most health experts would argue that take these drugs outside of ADHD is unwise and potentially dangerous, many college students do just that to help “cram” for tests.

Other nootropic drugs have no known mechanism of action. Even “brain-boosting” supplements generally regarded as safe (GRAS) by the FDA have undefined effects.

As an ill-defined group of medications and supplements, nootropics have come under fired by federal regulators over concerns about false advertising practices. In 2019, the FDA and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) both issued warnings to consumers about marketing scams and false health claims made by nootropic manufacturers.

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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Additional Reading

  • Elston TW, Pandian A, Smith GD, et al. Aniracetam Does Not Alter Cognitive and Affective Behavior in Adult C57BL/6J Mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104443. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104443
  • Koliaki CC, Messini C, Tsolaki M. Clinical Efficacy of Aniracetam, Either as Monotherapy or Combined with Cholinesterase Inhibitors, in Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Comparative Open Study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2012;18(4):302-12. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00244.x
  • Phillips H, McDowell A, Mielby BS, et al. Aniracetam Does Not Improve Working Memory in Neurologically Healthy Pigeons. PLoS One. 2019;14(4):e0215612. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215612
  • Reynolds CD, Jefferson TS, Volquardsen M, et al. Oral Aniracetam Treatment in C57BL/6J Mice Without Pre-Existing Cognitive Dysfunction Reveals No Changes in Learning, Memory, Anxiety or Stereotypy. F1000Res. 2017;6:1452. doi:10.12688/f1000research.11023.3


Vinpocetine, Rhodiola and Phenylpiracetam for laser focus

Phenylpiracetam: What We Know So Far (Potential Effects, Mechanisms, and Side-Effects)

Nootropic supplements for super focusSometimes a bit more focus and motivation are just what's needed to acquire the competitive edge needed to succeed.

Three super supplements for laser style focus and motivation that can also have a positive effect on memory and learning as well are vinpocetine, rhodiola rosea and phenylpiracetam.

The first two are naturally sourced, vinpocetine is sourced from vincamine, an alkaloidal extract of the periwinkle (Vinca majora) where as phenylpiracetam is a variant of piracetam where a phenyl group has been added increasing potency.

Periwinkle has long been a prized addition to numerous gardens due to it's attractive purple flowers. Vinpocetine's advantage over vincamine is primarily lessened possibility of side effects. It's also been found to be more potent in regards to improving long and short term memory functions and cerebral circulation and so far no interactions with any pharmaceutical drugs have been found.

As a mild vasodilator, vinpocetine improves cerebral blood flow which results in more efficient usage of oxygen and glucose as well as enhancing ATP (Adenine Triphosphate), which is the “energy currency” of the body. ATP supplementation is especially beneficially for those over thirty. Vinpocetine tablets are available here

Rhodiola Rosea, the Siberian adaptogen

Another great naturally sourced supplement to increase motivation and focus levels is the so-called Siberian Ginseng, Rhodiola rosea. Rhodiola is not actually a true ginseng but vinpocetine, gingko and ginseng can improve oxygenation and glucose utlization through a similar vasodilatory mechanism of action.

Rhodiola was just one of the adaptogenic plants and nootropic compounds studied by Soviet scientists during the Cold War.

As an adaptogen it reduces the effects of environmental stress by modulating our stress response in the body vis a vis acting upon the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), a sub-set of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) which controls heart rate, breathing and other automatic responses throughout the body and brain.

Columbia's Dr. Richard Brown noted that Rhodiola induces both “cognitive stimulation” and what may seem a counterintuitive “emotional calming effect,” unless you're familiar with the mechanisms of many of the Soviet studied nootropics and adaptogens Picamilon that have similar stimulating and anxiolytic properties.

Rhodiola has also been shown to increase energy, focus, motivation, physical endurance and recovery time. As a powerful antioxidant it also has a neuroprotective quality that may reduce the risk of certain neurodegenerative conditions according to a study done by China's Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine.

Average daily dose of Rhodiola is 200 to 400mg of a standardized extract with 3:1 ratio those found here, already in easy to handle 200mg tablets.

Phenylpiracetam, a souped of derivative of the classic nootropic

Phenylpiracetam is a derivate of piracetam, the classic cholinergic nootropic. It has been altered by adding a phenyl group which increases the potency. It is sometimes also known by the Russian pharmaceutical trade name Phenotropil (Piracetam itself is marketed as the Russian pharmaceutical Nootropil). Un piracetam, whose dosage ranges in the grams, phenylpiracetam is effective in doses of 100 or 200mg taking 1 – 3 times a day.

Phenylpiracetam could possibly be even more neuroprotective than piracetam. but also possesses the same psychostimulatory effects and may improve cold resistance and physical performance which is the reason it is banned from the Olympics and other sports governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

In those without age related cognitive decline it may act as a simple psychostimulant and it's neuroprotective effects may not be beneficial for those with traumatic (as opposed to organic) cognitive decline.

Phenylpiracetam is offered in pure powder form as easy to manage tablets and also is included along with sulbutiamine, CDP choline and pramiracetam in Focus Supplements' Energy Stack Pure Powder found here.

The energy stack by itself or phenylpiracetam, rhodiola and vinpocetine can be a great addition to your nootropic stack if you're looking for greater levels of energy and focus in addition the cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of nootropics.

Always remember to start slow and use the least minimum effective dosage in order to prevent possible negative side effects or tolerance potential and consult with a physician before undergoing any supplementation regimen especially if you're already using any prescription drugs or under a doctor's care for any pre-existing medical conditions.

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