3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

  1. Coluracetam
  2. Benefits and Effects of Coluracetam
  3. Memory and Learning
  4. Depression and Anxiety
  5. Eyesight
  6. How It Works
  7. Dosage
  8. Side Effects
  9. Stacking
  10. Where to Buy
  11. Closing Thoughts
  12. Coluracetam – benefits and potential side effects
  13. What are we dealing with?
  14. The mechanism of action
  15. 1) Coluracetam can improve memory and learning ability
  16. 2) Coluracetam can help in the treatment of drug-resistant depression
  17. 3) Coluracetam can reduce anxiety and anxiety
  18. 4) Coluracetam may support neurogenesis (growth of nerve cells)
  19. 5) Coluracetam can help treat schizophrenia
  20. 6) Coluracetam can improve your eyesight
  21. Side effects
  22. Interaction with drugs
  23. Forms of supplementation
  24. Here are some of the effects that our readers mention:
  25. Side effects include:
  26. References:
  27. Coluracetam Benefits, Dosage, Stacking and Side Effects
  28. Summary
  29. Coluracetam History  
  30. Coluracetam’s Mechanisms of Action
  31. Coluracetam Benefits and Effects
  32. Memory and Learning Enhancements  
  33. MDD and General Anxiety Disorder  
  34. Eyesight and Optic Nerve Injuries
  35. Cognitive and Global Brain Function Improvements
  36. Coluracetam vs. Noopept: What is the Difference?
  37. Coluracetam Side Effects
  38. Coluracetam Dosage
  39. User Experience
  40. Coluracetam Stacking  
  41. Where to Buy Coluracetam
  42. Conclusion
  43. 3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety
  44. What is Coluracetam?
  45. Mechanism of Action
  46. Treatment-Resistant Depression Study
  47. Animal Research on Coluracetam
  48. 1) Memory and Learning
  49. 2) Anxiety
  50. 3) Schizophrenia
  51. Side Effects
  52. Drug Interactions
  53. Forms of Supplementation
  54. Dosage
  55. Limitations and Caveats
  56. User Experiences
  57. Coluracetam: 5 Benefits
  58. Coluracetam Overview
  59. How Does it Work?
  60. What are the Benefits?
  61. Suggested Dosages
  62. Possible Side Effects
  63. Overall Summary
  64. References


3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

Coluracetam is a new and unique member of the racetam class of synthetic nootropics. Originally developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and later considered as a treatment for depression and anxiety, coluracetam has become a popular nootropic known for improving mood, increasing motivation, and enhancing vision.

Coluracetam was first synthesized in 2005 by Japan’s Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation as an Alzheimer’s disease treatment. After disappointing clinical trials, coluracetam was licensed to US biotechnology firm BrainCells Inc.

, which started testing the compound as a treatment for depression and anxiety. Though initial test results were positive and suggested that further study of coluracetam would be worthwhile, development was discontinued and BrainCells, Inc. closed in 2014.

 Coluracetam has been available for licensing since 2012.

Coluracetam acts primarily as a choline uptake enhancer that selectively affects memory function.

It specifically enhances high-affinity choline uptake, increasing levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by providing more of the choline from which it is made.

Since acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most closely associated with memory and cognition, it is believed that this function is the primary source of coluracetam’s nootropic capabilities.

Coluracetam is particularly potent and requires a much smaller dose than other racetam class nootropics. It’s fast-acting, reaching high levels in plasma within 30 minutes of ingestion, but within three hours levels are in decline.

Coluracetam is unregulated in the US and is sold as a dietary supplement, but its legal status varies from country to country. In Canada and the UK, it cannot be legally sold except by prescription, but it can be legally imported and possessed.

Benefits and Effects of Coluracetam

There have been few documented human studies on coluracetam, so most of the information available is animal testing. However,  research results, in combination with self-reports from users, suggests that coluracetam may provide a variety of both cognitive and physical/sensory benefits.

Memory and Learning

Coluracetam has been shown to improve cognitive function and memory in rats, and in theory, similar results may translate to humans.

In a 2010 animal study, coluracetam improved artificially-induced memory deficits without producing any significant side effects. The positive results were still apparent three days after the last dose, even though the serum concentration of coluracetam was negligible.

Some users say coluracetam dramatically improves short-term memory and free recall, increases memorization and recall abilities and enhances reading comprehension, and increases thought and learning speed and information retention.

Depression and Anxiety

The Phase 2a clinical trial of coluracetam suggested that it may be effective for treatment-resistant patients with both depression and anxiety.

The six-week placebo-controlled study, which was one of the few coluracetam tests involving humans, determined that a dosage of 240 mg (split into three daily doses of 80 mg) was useful in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) with co-morbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

At the end of the test period, the overall treatment group and the placebo group scored similarly on scales for depression and anxiety, but there was a measurable improvement in the subset of treatment group participants who had both MDD and GAD, and who had previously failed an average of two antidepressants.

User reports on coluracetam’s effect on anxiety and depression vary considerably, with some saying it alleviates both and is a potent and reliable mood booster, while others say it can actually trigger depression and anxiety.


Coluracetam’s effect on vision is frequently reported by users, who say it enhances color vision, shape recognition, and optical vividness. Some users describe the effect as “HD vision” while others say it makes lights brighter and intensifies contrast.

Though enhanced vision is one of the most commonly reported benefits of coluracetam, there is no conclusive scientific evidence to explain or confirm this effect.

How It Works

most racetam compounds, coluracetam works mainly by increasing levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition.

The means by which coluracetam modulates acetylcholine levels is unique, however; while racetams typically trigger acetylcholine production by stimulating the appropriate receptors, coluracetam does so by enhancing high-affinity choline uptake, or HACU. The HACU system determines the rate at which choline is drawn into neurons for conversion into acetylcholine.

By increasing the rate at which choline is drawn into nerve cells, coluracetam promotes the production of acetylcholine and causes brain levels of this crucial neurotransmitter to rise. It has also been shown to create an increase in the high-affinity choline transporter molecule CHT1, which leads to the rapid availability of choline for uptake.

Together these actions lead to higher levels of acetylcholine, which are associated with enhanced cognition and memory.


Most of the research on coluracetam was done on animals rather than humans, so there are no universally accepted dosing guidelines. The active dosage range is generally described as 5–20 mg, though users report a wide range of doses taken both orally and sublingually.

Many users note that tolerance may develop quickly, but there is no research data on that aspect of coluracetam.

As is true with all nootropics, it’s generally best to begin dosing at the lower end of the range to determine your reaction to the substance and increase as necessary.

Side Effects

None of the animal or human studies on coluracetam documented any side effects.

The lack of adverse side effects was considered one of the most notable aspects of the animal study in which coluracetam was shown to offset artificially induced memory deficits in rats.

The most commonly reported side effect associated with racetam class nootropics is headache, which can often be eliminated by taking additional choline.

Coluracetam users have also reported intermittent nausea and daytime sleepiness as negative side effects, both of which were lessened by reducing dosage.


most racetams, coluracetam stacks well with a choline source, such as alpha GPC, for added memory and cognitive benefits.

The recommended doses for supplemental choline is 300–600 mg daily if you’re stacking with alpha GPC and 250–750 mg daily if you’re using CDP choline.

Where to Buy

Coluracetam is only available at certain online specialty vendors. We recommend PureNootropics.net as your source for coluracetam or any other nootropics you would to buy.

Closing Thoughts

Coluracetam is one of the newer and less familiar members of the racetam class of nootropics, but it’s a favorite with many users.

It increases levels of the “learning neurotransmitter” acetylcholine, which may boost cognition, and animal studies show that it can offset memory deficits without significant side effects.

Though there’s little documented human research on coluracetam, the studies that exist indicate that it may be a valuable treatment for anxiety and depression.

Many users count on it as a reliable mood lifter and memory enhancer that gives them better focus and concentration, and others say it gives them the equivalent of “HD vision,” making colors brighter, contrast more intense, and lights more radiant.

Coluracetam is a potent compound, so dosage amounts are low, and it’s known to be fast acting. It’s sold as a dietary supplement in the US and can be legally imported into Canada and the UK in small amounts.

There’s still much to be learned about coluracetam, but it appears to be safe for most users when taken responsibly. If you’re interested in adding something new and different to your nootropic stack, coluracetam could be one to consider.

Coluracetam was last modified: January 24th, 2020 by Braintropic.com Research Team

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

This page was last updated on January 24, 2020.

Source: https://www.braintropic.com/nootropics/coluracetam/

Coluracetam – benefits and potential side effects

3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

Coluracetam is a nootropic used to support memory and learning. It can also help in the treatment of depression, anxiety and also help to improve eyesight.

What we know about this product has been gathered thanks to several animal tests and the experience of people who have decided to reach for it. Several studies on humans regarding this drug have never been published.

Read on to learn about the potential use and possible side effects.

What are we dealing with?

Coluracetam, also known as BCI-540 or MKC-231, is a nootropic substance from the racetam class (although it is not fully included in them).

Originally it was studied in Japan in the mid-90s for its effects on Alzheimer's disease. These studies have demonstrated the ability of coluracetam to improve memory and learning in mice with damaged nerve cells.

However, none of the studies on Alzheimer's disease have ever been published [1].

The second round of research on coluracetam, conducted by Brain Cells Inc., on over 100 people with depression and anxiety, revealed a number of benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD). The results of this study have also never been published.

The mechanism of action

Coluracetam is unique among brain boosters because it improves choline uptake in nerve cells by supporting the choline uptake system (HACU). This choline uptake system increases the amount of acetylcholine in the brain. Coluracetam can restore the choline uptake system to optimal function after damage to the nerve cells! [2].

Coluracetam also protects NMDA receptors against glutamate toxicity. Damage to these receptors is associated with stroke, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury and other brain diseases [3].

1) Coluracetam can improve memory and learning ability

Coluracetam improved memory and learning ability in rats receiving a nerve toxin that damages the choline reuptake system in the brain [4].

The level of acetylcholine is often lower in people with Alzheimer's disease. By increasing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam may improve some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, such as poor memory and learning disorders [5].

In rats that received a recreational PCP drug (which inhibits ChAT, an enzyme that creates acetylcholine), coluracetam has repaired impairment of the learning function by increasing ChAT [6].

2) Coluracetam can help in the treatment of drug-resistant depression

In a study (DB-RCT) of 101 people with depression who failed treatment with 2 antidepressants, coluracetam had a positive effect on the perceived improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day [7].

Unfortunately, this is the only study on humans using coluracetam.

The ability of coluracetam to reduce glutamate toxicity may be responsible for its positive effects in the treatment of depression [8].

3) Coluracetam can reduce anxiety and anxiety

Brain Fuel V2 from Apollos Hegemony is supplement containing Coluracetam, with another innovative nootropic substance called Sunifiram

In a rat study, administration of coluracetam for 21 days led to a 20% reduction in anxiety. The effect was better than the 12% valium effect in a single dose in the same study [9].

4) Coluracetam may support neurogenesis (growth of nerve cells)

Some reports state that coluracetam supports the growth of nerve cells (neurogenesis). The mechanism of action remains unknown, but it is thought to be related to the increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area when coluracetam is administered daily for several weeks [10].

5) Coluracetam can help treat schizophrenia

The enzyme that helps in the formation of acetylcholine (CHAT) is not fully active and effective [11].
Coluracetam increased the activity of ChAT in rats with damage to nerve cells. This suggests that it can benefit patients with schizophrenia through the same enzyme. Further research is needed directly for people with schizophrenia [9].

6) Coluracetam can improve your eyesight

In degenerative retinal disease, coluracetam may promote nerve growth. Numerous user reports describe sharpening of the eyesight and better color vision; however, no scientific studies confirm these effects.

Side effects

Users report “brain fog” (siltation), depressed mood, suicidal thoughts and changes in response to coluracetam depending on the amount and quality of sleep.
Unpublished dose studies of up to 240 mg/day did not show serious side effects in humans.

Interaction with drugs

Coluracetam may inhibit or impair the effects of anticholinergics, such as Benadryl, anti-Parkinson drugs, and certain antipsychotics.

Coluracetam may also increase the effect of cholinergic medicines, such as some glaucoma and Alzheimer's.

It may also interact with NMDA receptor drugs such as antitussive agents and anesthetics.

Forms of supplementation

Coluracetam can be taken:

  • Orally – with the use of capsule or tablet,
  • Sublingually.

Many people who take coluracetam also take choline to enhance the effect of coluracetam and reduce possible side effects.

Here are some of the effects that our readers mention:

  • Better image clarity,
  • Intense color perception
  • Improved mood
  • Improved memory
  • Reduced anxiety
  • Increased concentration
  • Increased energy

Side effects include:

  • Brain Fog
  • Different results depending on the amount of sleep
  • Lowering the mood


brain fuel, brain fuel v2, coluracetam, kratom, nootropic, sunifiram

Source: https://www.mz-store.com/blog/coluracetam-benefits-and-potential-side-effects/

Coluracetam Benefits, Dosage, Stacking and Side Effects

3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

Coluracetam is a smart nootropic supplement from the racetam family. Research has shown that it’s a potent cognitive enhancer that can be useful in treating anxiety, major depressive disorder, and other cognitive impairments. The mental benefits include an improvement in focus, motivation, intelligence, memory, learning, and overall cognitive functions.


Coluracetam is a bit less popular than other similar products from this family. Still, this nootropic compound does have positive effects on memory and cognitive functions. It is often used to treat symptoms of manic depression and anxiety, but its effects differ from similar supplements aniracetam and piracetam.

On the other hand, coluracetam has many similar effects as noopept, one of its distant cousins, but the effects of coluracetam are much stronger and almost twice as strong.

all racetam-based nootropics, this supplement is the most difficult to manufacture. In other words, coluracetam cannot be found in any type of food, meaning, it’s a synthetic supplement. But its many benefits have put it on the list of “promising nootropics”, as it shows great potential in treating the optic nerve, retinal damage, and other central nervous system disorders.

Coluracetam is made from a racetam compound which is derived from piracetam.

Because of its origin, it enhances an upsurge in choline, which is known to trigger an important neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACh).

As a result, this neurotransmitter, which is in charge of the proper functioning of our memory, accumulates in much higher levels, leading to an improvement in alertness and attention.

Currently, the brain boosting abilities of this nootropic are mostly utilized by students, to increase their performance in school. It’s also recommended for people with a busy lifestyle who struggle to find balance and maintain focus.

Coluracetam History  

Coluracetam was first developed and officially registered by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in 2005. Known as MKC-231, the drug was used to test the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Although the clinical trials didn’t reach the expected results, there were still signs of certain advantages in brain function.

After the first semi-failed attempt, BrainCells Inc. took over the investigation once they got the license. However, their investigation went in another direction as they tested the substance for major depressive disorder (MDD), for which they received a “Qualifying Therapeutic Discovery Program Grant” reward.

The second phase of clinical trials showed that this drug had big potential for treating people who struggle with both anxiety and a major depressive disorder. Entitled phase II for BCI-540, now known as coluracetam, it was very successful. The patients who received the drug reported a reduction in symptoms by 17%.

Coluracetam has the big potential for treating people who struggle with both anxiety and a major depressive disorder

Unfortunately, the BrainCells Inc. company didn’t continue with their trials. However, this didn’t stop many nootropic users from including this supplement in their favorite list of nootropics. Nowadays, coluracetam is available as an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the U.S.

Coluracetam’s Mechanisms of Action

Coluracetam’s chemical structure is:

2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b] quinolin-4-yl)acetoamide

As previously mentioned, due to its basis, coluracetam shares some characteristics with other racetams. However, there are also quite a few differences as well. For example, though it increases the amount of choline in neurons, coluracetam augments impaired or damaged neurons as well.

This high-affinity choline uptake is also known as HACU. The increased rate of HACU amplifies the activity of cholinergic neurons, which are directly related to cognitive functions.

Moreover, the end result is enhanced cognitive performance such as better memory, ease of learning, attention, and alertness.

Coluracetam also might be effective in the visual cortex, the area of the brain that controls visual processing (processing colors, shapes, and movement). After all, the name of this nootropic comes from its noticeable eyesight improvements such as being able to experience more vivid colors and clearer shapes.

Given that there aren’t a lot of studies that can back the full capabilities of coluracetam, we can only speculate that the use of the drug in medical treatments will be examined further in the future.

But for now, while its distribution is limited and the drug is mostly available online, many nootropic experts and fellow Americans who used coluracetam claim to have experienced a positive outcome.

Coluracetam Benefits and Effects

There has been a limited amount of human testing, but some clinical trials show the most amazing potential – Coluracetam can possibly contribute to long-term memory improvements with impaired subjects. So far, most of the research done on animals brought exciting results, so let’s review all the known benefits and effects of coluracetam.

Memory and Learning Enhancements  

BrainCells Inc. studied coluracetam effects on rats who were chemically impaired. For eight days, the subjects were given 3mg of coluracetam along with a special compound, AF64A (type of neurotoxin).

After conducting the standard Morris Water Maze test, the study findings concluded that there were significant improvements in learning without any negative side effects such as hypothermia, tremors, or salivation.

However, what led scientists to believe that these are long-term benefits is the fact that the rats were able to get through the maze even after 72 hours have passed since the last dose of 8 mg. So, the same effects continued for three days after the trail, confirming the prolonged cognitive advantage without any side effects.

MDD and General Anxiety Disorder  

Phase II of the BrainCells trials also found coluracetam to be effective in patients with major depressive and general anxiety disorder, who had failed in their previous treatments with common antidepressants.

After administering three daily doses of 80 mg, 240 mg in total, subjects demonstrated positive behavioral changes and improved their depression assessment scores by 36%. Without a visible change in serotonin levels, the patients successfully increased self-efficiency and found a sense of relief, which the antidepressants couldn’t provide.

Eyesight and Optic Nerve Injuries

Since previous studies found that coluracetam supports neurological functions, including impaired and damaged neurons, it’s believed that it could be used when treating optic nerve injuries and eyesight impairments. Although there are no conclusive study results to support this claim, coluracetam undoubtedly has a strong connection with our visual cortex and it exhibits different benefits.

Cognitive and Global Brain Function Improvements

A U.S. National Library of Medicine article review of cholinergic changes in Parkinson’s disease, dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) suggests that cholinesterase inhibitors have a positive effect on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and general brain functions in patients with DLB and PDD.

In fact, all studies, including one big, 2 small placebo-controlled trials, and almost 20 open-label studies involving human subjects, came to the same conclusion. Considering that coluracetam increases levels of choline, we could speculate that it should be able to provide similar results. But without further studies, this remains only a theory.

Coluracetam vs. Noopept: What is the Difference?

Coluracetam is a racetam that indirectly stimulates acetylcholine. Its functions are directly related to cholinergic neurons. It increases their efficiency and therefore improves cognition.

Noopept on the other hand, doesn’t belong to the group of racetams, although it acts as a more potent version of piracetam. This compound is known for its neuroprotective abilities, especially in patients who suffered brain trauma.

While both drugs improve cognitive functions, the one thing they truly have in common is that they are both biologically active in small quantities.

Coluracetam 3-30mg
Noopept 10-30mg

Given that there aren’t a lot of studies that can back the full capabilities of coluracetam, we can only speculate that the use of the drug in medical treatments will be examined further in the future.

Coluracetam Side Effects

Once again, there is not much information or studies available on coluracetam regarding its side effects and toxicity. However, the doses presented above have shown no negative side effects and are usually well-tolerated. First-time users might experience headaches, which is a common mild side effect for any nootropic beginner.

Note: In the case you are considering taking coluracetam or any other nootropic supplement, consult a doctor before you make the final decision. Only a verified physician can determine if you need to take supplementation, which product in particular, and the proper dosage.

Coluracetam Dosage

Given that coluracetam is quite potent, smaller doses are recommended. Many nootropic users report that the correct dosage is between 3 and 35mg. However, before consumption, divide the selected dosage of coluracetam into three parts and take it three times a day.

It’s generally advised to take smaller doses at first and to gradually increase the dosage in case you don’t notice any specific effects. Those who have MDD and problems with anxiety may feel free to up their dosage to as much as 100 mg 3 times per day if they have to.

User Experience

Personally, coluracetam helped me repair my eyesight, gave me tranquility, and much better focus. I have an eye condition called astigmatisms, which basically means that my sight is awful. It’s always blurry and I can’t properly focus the light, but since I started taking and stacking coluracetam with other racetams, my vision and general state of mind drastically improved.

Knowing that nootropic effects depend on the individual, here are some other examples of what other coluracetam users have to say about their experience. In general, people tend to report that they see colors more vividly and that they feel more awake and focused. These benefits are usually experienced quite soon after taking coluracetam.

Improvements in mood and memory are often seen, and I can report that I’ve experienced similar things after a couple of days. It also helped me feel less stressed out, so I was able to concentrate fully on any task I had in front of me.

The biggest change for me personally was the fact that I was able to get a good night’s sleep for the first time in weeks. I tend to get quite anxious and can’t sleep for more than 4-5 hours a night when I have a lot of work, but coluracetam seemed to take the edge off and helped me improve my sleeping habits.

Of course, after getting enough sleep and the extra focus boost from the nootropic, I was able to think much faster, come up with creative solutions to problems and communicate my thoughts much more efficiently when talking to people.

Coluracetam Stacking  

First-time coluracetam users can try stacking this nootropic with a bioavailable choline source to reduce the chances of side effects. most racetams, coluracetam works great when stacked with its family, so Alpha GPC, CDP Choline, and Centrophenoxine will lessen the potential headaches that occur in some people.

Where to Buy Coluracetam

Coluracetam is not that easy to find, because it still hasn’t been properly tested. However, it never hurts to hit the Internet and check out coluracetam offers on Amazon. In order to avoid a potential hoax and to find only the best product for you, we recommend that you visit this page:


Coluracetam might be a less popular nootropic when compared to other racetams, but it surely has potent positive effects.

As of now, several conducted trials have shown that there is potential for therapeutic use, and long-term cognitive improvements, but we will have to wait for more studies to see its full potential.

Either way, nootropic enthusiast who want to unlock, enhance, and retain their cognitive abilities can take advantage of this nootropic supplement.

Source: https://brainalia.com/nootropics/coluracetam/

3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

Coluracetam is a nootropic that proponents believe can help memory and learning, depression, anxiety, as well as to improve vision. However, research is sorely lacking, and the company that was developing coluracetam has since closed. Learn the whole story here.

Note: We recommend strongly against using coluracetam or any other unapproved experimental drug. Some of our readers who were already taking the drug requested that we commission a post on it and we are simply providing information that is available in the clinical and scientific literature. Please discuss your medications with your doctor.

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam, also known as BCI-540 or MKC-231, is a nootropic of the racetam class.

Coluracetam was originally studied in Japan in the mid-1990s for Alzheimer’s treatment. These studies showed coluracetam’s ability to repair memory and learning in mice with damaged nerve cells. However, none of the research on Alzheimer’s has ever been published [1].

Coluracetam’s second round of research, by Brain Cells Inc., on more than 100 people with major depression and anxiety, is reported to have shown benefits for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these trials were never published either.

Mechanism of Action

Coluracetam is unique among brain enhancers in that it improvescholine uptake in the nerve cells via the choline uptake system (HACU) in cell studies.

This choline uptake system could potentially increase the amount of acetylcholine in the brain.

According to some researchers, coluracetam could, therefore, restore this choline uptake system after nerve cell damage; this has yet to be confirmed in animal or human trials [2, 3, 4].

Coluracetam also protects the NMDA receptors from glutamate toxicity. Damage to these receptors is involved in stroke, Alzheimer’s, traumatic brain injury, and other brain diseases [5].

Treatment-Resistant Depression Study

In a study (double-blind randomized controlled trial) of 101 people with depression who had failed treatment with 2 antidepressants and also had anxiety, coluracetam had a positive effect on depression scores at doses of 80 mg 3 times daily [6].

Unfortunately, this is the only published human study on coluracetam. There is nowhere near enough evidence to support its use, and safety data is also sorely lacking. The risks overwhelm the potential benefits; this is why we strongly recommend against using coluracetam.

Animal Research on Coluracetam

No clinical evidence supports the use of coluracetam for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

Furthermore, it’s important to remember that coluracetam has not been approved by the FDA for any medical purpose. It is currently illegal to import and sell coluracetam in the United States [7].

We therefore strongly recommend avoiding coluracetam. The following animal research is included for educational purposes only.

1) Memory and Learning

Coluracetam improved memory and learning in rats treated with a nerve toxin that damages the choline uptake system in the brain. This improvement surprisingly lasted beyond treatment. However, these benefits in learning and memory were not seen in rats who were not exposed to the nerve toxin [2, 3, 4].

Acetylcholine levels are often lower in those with Alzheimer’s. By boosting acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam may improve some Alzheimer’s symptoms, such as poor memory and learning [8].

In rats that were given the recreational drug PCP (which inhibits ChAT, the enzyme that creates acetylcholine), coluracetam repaired the damage to the learning function by increasing ChAT [9].

2) Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam led to a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was greater than the 12% effect valium had in a single dose in the same study [10].

3) Schizophrenia

The enzyme that helps make acetylcholine (ChAT) is impaired in schizophrenia [11].

Coluracetam increased the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is needed [9].

Side Effects

Users report brain fog, low mood, suicidal thoughts, and changes in response to coluracetam their sleep levels.

An unpublished study of levels up to 240 mg daily did not report major side effects in humans [12].

Drug Interactions

Coluracetam may counteract the effects of anticholinergic drugs, such as Benadryl, Parkinson’s medications, and some antipsychotics.

Coluracetam may also increase the effects of cholinergic drugs, such as some medications for glaucoma and Alzheimer’s, and nicotine.

It may also interact with drugs that act on the NMDA receptor, such as cough suppressants and anesthetics.

To avoid adverse effects and unexpected interactions, we recommend talking to your doctor about better-studied and safer alternatives to coluracetam.

Forms of Supplementation

Coluracetam can be taken:

  • Orally – capsule or power
  • Under the tongue

Proponents of coluracetam believe that its benefits come from an increase in acetylcholine. A better and safer way to increase acetylcholine may be to eat foods rich in choline, the precursor to acetylcholine. Choline can be found in [13]:

  • Eggs
  • Beef & beef liver
  • Scallops
  • Chicken
  • Salmon
  • Cod
  • Shrimp
  • Broccoli

Many people who take coluracetam also take choline as CDP-Choline or Alpha-GPC to enhance coluracetam’s effects and reduce possible side effects. No evidence supports these combinations.


There is no safe and effective dose of coluracetam because no sufficiently powered study has been conducted to find one. Furthermore, safety data is lacking.

Limitations and Caveats

The only research on coluracetam that has been published is in rats and mice, whereas human research has not made it to publication. As of January 2014, the company BrainCells Inc, the last company to research coluracetam, is closed.

With the numerous side effects listed from users and no long-term studies, we strongly recommend against using coluracetam.

User Experiences

While not being studied extensively, nootropics users say coluracetam:

  • Brightened color vision
  • Improved visual clarity
  • Improved mood
  • Improved memory
  • Reduced anxiety
  • Increased focus
  • Increased energy
  • Improved visual imagination

However, users also reported these side effects:

  • Brain fog
  • Increased depression
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Irregular results
  • Varied results depending on the duration of sleep

These are strictly anecdotal reports which have no scientific basis whatsoever. We strongly recommend avoiding coluracetam and talking to your doctor about appropriate strategies for beating brain fog or other mental troubles.

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/uses-coluracetam/

Coluracetam: 5 Benefits

3 Potential Uses of Coluracetam + Side Effects & Safety

Various factors can weaken cognitive abilities, affect your mood, and negatively affect the overall brain health. Fortunately, we have a wide array of options to use in order to improve brain function and boost cognitive skills.

Nootropics have become a popular solution for many students, businesspeople, and basically, everyone else who wants to improve brain health.

Coluracetam is one of many nootropics that people use regularly and in this post, you’re going to learn more about this cognitive enhancer and its benefits.

Coluracetam Overview

Coluracetam is a nootropic from the racetam family with a code name BCI-540, formerly MKC-231.

The drug was originally studied by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan during the mid-90s for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Although the studies showed the drug’s potential to repair learning and memory in mice with damaged nerve cells, there is no published research about the influence of coluracetam on Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

Coluracetam is, basically, a dietary supplement derived from piracetam. Since the nootropic failed to provide desired results in trials regarding Alzheimer’s disease, it was in-licensed by the company called BrainCells Inc.

for the purpose of exploring its effects on treatment of depression. In the United States, coluracetam is easily available as a dietary supplement. Users have the opportunity to order it online without a doctor’s prescription.

How Does it Work?

Coluracetam has a unique mechanism of action due to the fact it works by improving choline uptake in the nerve cells through the choline uptake system (HACU).

Why is this such a big deal? Well, this is the only choline uptake enhancer known to exist at this point. The choline uptake system elevates the concentration of acetylcholine in the brain.

What many people don’t know is that coluracetam has the potential to restore this choline uptake system after nerve cell damage.

In addition to improving choline uptake, coluracetam also works to protect NMDA receptors against glutamate toxicity.

It’s useful to mention now that the damage to these receptors takes part in brain diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and other conditions.

Even though coluracetam is an interesting nootropic and many scientists are exploring it now, we still need more studies in order to elucidate the full potential of the drug and maybe some other mechanisms of action.

What are the Benefits?

Coluracetam is a truly powerful nootropic that many people take for a wide array of purposes.

As mentioned above, scientists find this cognitive enhancer interesting due to its unique mechanism of action, but the reality is that we need more studies that would confirm its health benefits.

Below, we're going to take a closer look at the most important benefits that you can obtain with the regular use of coluracetam.

The number one reason why people buy nootropics is to improve their memory and coluracetam is not the exception. Users who purchase the cognitive enhancer expect it to sharpen their ability to recall information and take their memory to a whole new level. Some cognitive enhancers don’t work, but coluracetam does.

For example, a study from the Journal of Neural Transmission found that coluracetam successfully addressed and improved memory deficits. This means that regular intake of this nootropic can, indeed, help you sharpen your memory and allow you to recall information more effectively.

It goes without saying how much this is important for school, work, or basically everything else.

Your learning ability never remains constant; just overall cognitive skills, it goes up and down.

When learning decreases, it becomes difficult to perform problem-solving skills, take part in decision-making, recall information, among other things.

We can easily say that decreased learning skills have a negative impact on your quality of life. Coluracetam proves to be effective for improving learning by elevating acetylcholine levels in addition to strengthening memory.

Bearing in mind that millions of people around the globe struggle with anxiety and depression it has never been more important to have an effective agent that will help alleviate symptoms of these conditions.

Even more so if that particular treatment agent is available as a dietary supplement! Coluracetam shows a tremendous potential to help people who have anxiety and depression. It is theorized that the mechanism of action through which coluracetam treats depression is through decreased glutamate toxicity.

Also, evidence shows that regular intake of coluracetam for 21 days led to a 20% improvement in symptoms of anxiety. For comparison sake, valium had only 16% effect.

Neurogenesis is defined as the process through which neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Basically, neurogenesis is the creation of new brain cells, and this process is crucial for brain function and strong cognitive abilities.

One of the most important benefits of coluracetam is its ability to promote neurogenesis.

However, the underlying mechanism of action through which this nootropic supports the production of new brain cells is unknown but it could be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine.

A common belief is that nootropics such as coluracetam are only good for memory and concentration, but they can do so much more than that. Remember, the brain is the center for all functions that you do including senses that you use on a daily basis.

Therefore, it also regulates vision, hearing, and you name it. You'll be happy to know that coluracetam promotes nerve growth in degenerative disease affecting the retina.

As a result, it can improve your vision which is yet another reason to consider taking this nootropic.

Suggested Dosages

Just many other nootropics, particularly from the racetam family, the specific optimal dosage of coluracetam is unknown. However, there are a few indications about the possible dosage that yields health benefits associated with this nootropic. Taking a dosage of 3.2mg to 32.mg is recommended, but the starting dose that many people take is 20mg.

some recommendations the average human may want to consider taking 2.5mg to 3mg coluracetam per each kilogram of body weight. More precisely, an average adult user should take about 200mg coluracetam a day.

Doses ranging from 10mg to 80mg three times a day, totaling 240mg daily, did not show side effects in some people. Of course, one should never start taking a high dose of coluracetam first. It’s always better to start with the lowest dose and gradually increase it.

To avoid potential risks, make sure you consult your healthcare provider about this subject.

Many people dose coluracetam sublingually in order to avoid the first-pass metabolism in the intestinal tract.

If you decide to use a sublingual solution, then it’s practical to start with a 20mg dose that you’ll take with a dropper.

Place dropper under the tongue and hold for a few moments prior to swallowing. The longer the solution is there, the easier it will be for the body to absorb it.

Another thing to bear in mind is that the dose of coluracetam peaks about 30 minutes after ingestion. Due to the fact it’s a fast-acting nootropic, you may want to time your dose in order to take the drug that will exhibit its effects right at the moment of rigorous mental work when you need it the most. Coluracetam levels in the bloodstream decline three hours or so after ingestion.

Possible Side Effects

Coluracetam is considered safe for general consumption, and the risk of side effects is very low. However, just other nootropics and medications, it can be associated with some adverse reactions. When side effects are involved, they usually include:

  • Brain fog
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Low mood
  • Irritability
  • Nausea
  • Changes in sleep pattern

Remember, the above-mentioned side effects are rare. To reduce the risk of unfortunate scenarios you need to be careful about the dosage. Never take too much and always stick to the recommended values or the dose that manufacturer specified on the packaging.

Overall Summary

Coluracetam is more than “yet another” nootropic from the racetam family. This cognitive enhancer has a unique mechanism of action, exhibits strong effects, and it’s safe. Besides memory and learning, this nootropic can also improve your vision and promote emotional and mental health and wellbeing.


Source: https://www.filteredformulas.com/blogs/higher-order-blog/coluracetam