Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

Probiotic Benefits, Side Effects, Foods & Types

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

Medically Reviewed on 11/8/2019

Alm, L. “Therapeutic Properties of Fermented Milk.” Elseveir Science (1991): 45-64.

Baquerizo Nole, K.L. “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Dermatology.” J Am Acad Dermatol. 71.4 Oct. 2014: 814-821.

Beighton, D. “Oral Bifidobacteria: Caries-associated Bacteria in Older Adults.” J Dent Res 89.9 Sept. 2010: 970-974.

Bellaguarda, E. “IBD and the gut microbiota–from bench to personalized medicine.” Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 17.4 Apr. 2015: 15.

Brown, K. “Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease.” Nutrients 4.8 (2012): 1095-1119.

ConsumerLab.com. .

Delorme, C. “Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Streptococcus thermophilus.” Int J Food Microbiol 126.3 Sept. 2008: 274-277.

Dimidi, E. “The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Am J Clin Nutr. 100.4 Oct. 2014: 1075-1084.

Dupont, A.W. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Aug. 2011; Epub ahead of print

Fijan, S. “Microorganisms with claimed probiotic properties: an overview of recent literature.” Int J Environ Res Public Health. 11.5 May 5, 2014: 4745-4767.

Fisberg, M., and R. Machado. “History of yogurt and current patterns of consumption.” Nutr Rev. 73 Suppl 1:4-7 Aug. 2015.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Goyal, R. “The Enteric Nervous System.” NEJM 334 Apr. 1996: 1106-1115.

Guarner, F. “Gut Flora in Health and Disease.” Lancet 361.9356 Feb. 2003: 512-519.

Hadhazy, Adam. “Think Twice: How the Gut's 'Second Brain' Influences Mood and Well-Being.” Scientific American Feb. 12, 2010. .

“Health Benefits of Taking Probiotics.” The Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide Sept. 2005. .

Hickson, M. “Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection.” Therap Adv Gastroenterol 4.3 May 2011: 185-197.

Hill, C. “Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11.8 Aug. 2014: 506-514.

Ishibashi, N. “Probiotics and Safety.” Am J Clin Nutr 73.2 Suppl Feb. 2001: 465S-470S.

Iyer, C., et al. “Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri promotes TNF-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia-derived cells by modulation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling.” Cell Microbiol 10.7 July 2008: 1442-1452.

Kabeerdoss, J. Nut J 10.138 Dec. 2011.

Kabir, M.A. “Role of Saccharomyces boulardii in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome.” Mymensingh Med J 20.3 July 2011: 397-401.

Kathari, D. “Therapeutic spectrum of nondigestible oligosaccharides: overview of current state and prospect.” J Food Sci. 79.8 Aug. 2014: R1491-8.

Kaur, R. Int J Paediatr Dent 10 Feb. 2012: 1363-1365.

Khalesi, S. “Effect of probiotics on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.” Hypertension 64.4 Oct. 2014: 897-903.

Kochan, P. Clin Microbiol Infect 10 June 2011: Epub ahead of print

Kong, X.Y. “Probiotics' preventive effect on pediatric food allergy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Chin Med Sci J 29.3 Sept. 2014: 144-147.

“Lactobacillus.” MedlinePlus. Dec. 9, 2011. .

López-Cepero, A.A. “Association of the Intestinal Microbiota and Obesity.” P R Health Sci J 34.2 June 2015: 60-4.

Makowiak, P. “Recycling metchnikoff: probiotics, the intestinal microbiome and the quest for long life.” Front Public Health 1 (2013): 52.

Margolis, K. Curr Opinions Gastroenterology 25.6 Nov. 2009: 503-511.

Meini, S. “Breakthrough Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in an adult patient with severe active ulcerative colitis: case report and review of the literature.” Infection May 30, 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

Murooka, Y. “Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan.” J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35.8 Aug. 2008: 791-8.

National Institute of Health

Ostadrahimi, A. “Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.” Iran J Public Health 44.2 Feb. 2015: 228-37.

Park, K.Y. “Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.” J Med Food 17.1 Jan. 2014: 6-20.

Picard, C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22.6 Sept. 2005: 495-512.

“Probiotic/Prebiotic Science.” International Scientific Association for Probiotics an Prebiotics.” .

Quigley, E. “Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Roles of Antibiotics, Prebiotics, and Probiotics.” Gastroenterology 130.2 Suppl 1 Feb. 2006: S78-90.

Roberfroid, M. “Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits.” Br J Nutr 104 Suppl 2 Aug. 2010: S1-63.

Saez-Lara, M.J. “The role of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and other related diseases: a systematic review of randomized human clinical trials.” Biomed Res Int (2015): 505875.

“Safety of Probiotics Used to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease.” Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Apr. 2011 .

Swain, M.R. “Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.” Biotechnol Res Int (2014): 250424.

Theodoru, V. “Effect of commensals and probiotics on visceral sensitivity and pain in irritable bowel syndrome.” Gut Microbes 5.3 May-June 2014: 430-436.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. “Oral Probiotics: An Introduction.” Nov. 2011. . United States. National Institutes of Health. “NIH Human Microbiome Project Defines Normal Bacterial Makeup of the Body.” June 13, 2012. . United States. Department of Health & Human Services

Whorwell, P.J. Am J Gastroenterol 10.7 July 2006: 1581-1590.

The World Health Organization

Wu, G.D. “Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes.” Science 334.6052 Oct. 7, 2011: 105-108.

Zhang, W., et al. “Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus enhances the immunogenicity of an oral rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.” Vaccine 26.29-30 July 2008: 3655-3661.

Source: https://www.medicinenet.com/probiotics/article.htm

Nutrition

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

Exercising is recommended as part of achieving and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Exercise is encouraged for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to promote the formation of muscle, improve energy, and positive benefits on lung function. Before beginning an exercise regimen be sure to check in with your CF doctor to make sure that the activity is appropriate for you.

Exercise can be classified into two categories, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic activity refers to exercises that are performed at moderate to low intensity for longer periods of time. For example, running, walking, swimming, or hiking would be considered aerobic activity.

Anaerobic activity refers to exercises that are performed at moderate to high intensity for short periods of time. Weight lifting, strength training, and running sprints are examples of anaerobic exercises. Another way to think about these two forms of exercise is aerobic activity typically builds endurance and anaerobic activity builds muscle mass or strength.

When exercising, the lungs work to oxygenate the blood and the heart works to pump the oxygenated blood to the muscles that are performing the activity. The heart and lungs are muscles and can be strengthened through routine exercise.

Many people with cystic fibrosis comment that aerobic exercise helps them cough and expectorate sputum, although check with you CF MD if you are considering exercise instead of a chest physiotherapy (CPT) regimen.

It is important to remember physical activity, in any form, burns calories. For patients with cystic fibrosis it may already be a struggle to gain weight and following an exercise routine can make this goal even more challenging, so be sure to properly fuel the body before and after exercising.

Consider eating a small snack 30 to 60 minutes before exercising, especially if you haven’t eaten a meal in the past 1 to 2 hours, this way the body will have some nutrients it can use for fuel.

It is equally important to refuel after exercising to make sure that no additional weight is loss and the muscles have enough nutrients to rebuild.

Before exercising, the snack or meal can be slightly higher in carbohydrates as this is the easiest form of fuel for the body to metabolize. After exercising it is a good idea to have a mixed snack that includes some protein, fat, and carbohydrates.

Your body will use the protein to repair and preserve muscle tissue, the carbohydrates to replenish its energy stores, and the additional fat to create satiety and additional fuel for energy stores.

Some examples of post-workout snacks would include chocolate milk smoothie with fruit and protein powder, a sandwich and cheese, yogurt and trail mix or granola, or a nutrition supplement drink (i.e. Ensure, Boost, Carnation Instant Breakfast, etc.).

If you live in a place that gets very hot in the summer months be mindful to stay well hydrated when exercising. When exercising, the body’s way of cooling itself off is to produce sweat; so it is important to replenish the water lost by drinking water or sports beverages during and after exercise.

Consider carrying a water bottle with you if you are planning on exercising for more than 30 minutes to stay well hydrated. For people who have CF, it is also important to also monitor salt intake due to increased losses of salt in the sweat.

During summer months, active individuals may benefit from consuming sports drinks that have added salt (or add a salt packet to the beverage) and eating salty snacks after exercising as part of refueling.

During summer months you may want to consider exercising in the early morning or later evening when the temperature may be cooler or at an indoor facility with air conditioning.

For patients with CF, exercise is important to promote muscle mass formation, improve wellbeing, and increase energy levels. Pick an exercise or activity you enjoy doing so that it becomes a desirable part of your weekly or daily routine. Be sure to check in with your CF team before starting a new exercise regimen to make sure it is appropriate for you.

Probiotics

Probiotics are defined by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Over the past several years probiotics have increased in popularity and research has been conducted for possible health benefits.

Research within the field of probiotics has discovered potential benefits of probiotics for symptom management during illness and improvements in immune function.

It has been noted that probiotics in the gut have positive immune benefits for a person by: helping to create an inhospitable environment for pathogens, competing for physical space with pathogens, and enhancing the intestinal barrier.

The well-documented benefits of probiotics are related to: improving digestion, managing constipation, reducing antibiotic-associated diarrhea, aiding in Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) infections, improving immune function, and improving the ability to digest lactose for lactose intolerant individuals.

Management of diarrhea and “re-culturing the gut” are the more common reasons that individuals start taking probiotics. According to the World Gastroenterology Organization Practice Guidelines for Probiotics, certain strains of bacteria have been shown to have positive effects depending on the problem.

For example, bacteria strains found to help with management of digestion include: L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei DN-114 001, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii). For treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea the most commonly studied strains are S. boulardii or L. rhamnosus GG. The strains found to have benefits for immune support include: B. lactis, L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus GG, and L. casei.

Most products that contain live, active cultures will have strains listed on the label but not necessarily dosing, or quantity of cultures, per serving size.

One thing to be mindful of is labeling of dietary supplements are not federally regulated; therefore the term “probiotics” is not protected and there is no oversight to ensure efficacy, potency, or consistency among products.

According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), probiotics are not intended to treat, diagnosis, cure, or alleviate symptoms of disease. Health claims regarding probiotics supplements in relation to decreasing the risk of a disease or health condition are also not approved by the FDA.

Structure-function health claims can be approved by the FDA if there is extensive research to demonstrate the connection between probiotics and their effect on the structure or function of humans which is where most of the research is being conducted.

The mostly commonly supplemented bacterial strains found in the supermarket or health store are Lactobacillus (acidophilus) and Bifidobacterium, as well as some yeast strains including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, E. coli, and Bacillus species.

The majority of food items that contain probiotics are dairy products such as DanActive, Yo-Plus, Yakult, and Activia; as well as fortified beverages all which contain live, active cultures. Probiotics can also be found freeze dried in capsule and tablet forms such as Florastor, Align, Bacid, and Culturelle.

The category or strength of a probiotic supplement depends on how many live (or freeze dried) active cultures it contains. Dosing is written as colony-forming units (CFUs).

Food grade probiotic supplements can be found in yogurts, kefir, some fortified dairy products and juices and may not specifically list CFU’s on the label. Pharmaceutical grade probiotics often contain high concentrations of cultures with specific dosing per capsule listed.

Be sure to read the label for what cultures the supplement contains as different strains have different studied benefits and this may effect what supplement is appropriate to take.

Your CF team may prescribe probiotics supplements during times of illness. Consult with your team if you have questions about probiotic supplements ordered for you or if you want to start a probiotic supplement regimen at home for appropriate recommendations.

Source: https://med.stanford.edu/cfcenter/services/Nutrition.html

Characterization of the anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus reuteri BM36301 and its probiotic benefits on aged mice

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

  1. 1.

    Dorrestein PC, Mazmanian SK, Knight R. Finding the missing links among metabolites, microbes, and the host. Immunity. 2014;40(6):824–32.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  2. 2.

    Versalovic J. The human microbiome and probiotics: implications for pediatrics. Ann Nutri Metab. 2013;63 Suppl 2:42–52.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  3. 3.

    Gilbert JA, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Porazinska DL, Weiss SJ, Knight R. Toward effective probiotics for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell. 2013;155(7):1446–8.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  4. 4.

    Devaraj S, Hemarajata P, Versalovic J. The human gut microbiome and body metabolism: implications for obesity and diabetes. Clin Chem. 2013;59(4):617–28.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  5. 5.

    Mayer EA, Knight R, Mazmanian SK, Cryan JF, Tillisch K. Gut Microbes and the Brain: Paradigm Shift in Neuroscience. J Neurosci. 2014;34(46):15490–6.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  6. 6.

    Turroni F, Ventura M, Butto LF, Duranti S, O'Toole PW, Motherway MO, van Sinderen D. Molecular dialogue between the human gut microbiota and the host: a Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium perspective. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014;71(2):183–203.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  7. 7.

    Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2010;90(3):859–904.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  8. 8.

    Madsen KL. The use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disease. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15(12):817–22.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  9. 9.

    Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, McCormick JK. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(4):658–72.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  10. 10.

    Scaldaferri F, Gerardi V, Lopetuso LR, Del Zompo F, Mangiola F, Boškoski I, Bruno G, Petito V, Laterza L, Cammarota G. Gut microbial flora, prebiotics, and probiotics in IBD: their current usage and utility. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:435268–76.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  11. 11.

    Perdigon G, Fuller R, Raya R. Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol. 2001;2(1):27–42.

  12. 12.

    Hörmannsperger G, Haller D. Molecular crosstalk of probiotic bacteria with the intestinal immune system: clinical relevance in the context of inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Med Microbiol. 2010;300(1):63–73.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  13. 13.

    Wells J. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of lactobacilli. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10(1):1–15.

  14. 14.

    Jacobsen CN, Rosenfeldt Nielsen V, Hayford AE, Moller PL, Michaelsen KF, Paerregaard A, Sandstrom B, Tvede M, Jakobsen M. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65(11):4949–56.

    • CAS
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  15. 15.

    Foligne B, Daniel C, Pot B. Probiotics from research to market: the possibilities, risks and challenges. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013;16(3):284–92.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  16. 16.

    Bernet M-F, Brassart D, Neeser J, Servin A. Adhesion of human bifidobacterial strains to cultured human intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of enteropathogen-cell interactions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59(12):4121–8.

    • CAS
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  17. 17.

    Morita H, He F, Fuse T, Ouwehand AC, Hashimoto H, Hosoda M, Mizumachi K, Kurisaki Ji. Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Caco‐2 Cells and Their Effect on Cytokine Secretion. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46(4):293–7.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  18. 18.

    Artis D. Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(6):411–20.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  19. 19.

    Kamada N, Seo S-U, Chen GY, Nunez G. Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013;13(5):321–35.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  20. 20.

    Littman DR, Rudensky AY. Th17 and regulatory T cells in mediating and restraining inflammation. Cell. 2010;140(6):845–58.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  21. 21.

    Erdman SE, Poutahidis T. Probiotic 'glow of health': it's more than skin deep. Benefic Microbes. 2014;5(2):109–19.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  22. 22.

    Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2011;108(38):16050–5.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  23. 23.

    Thomas CM, Hong T, van Pijkeren JP, Hemarajata P, Trinh DV, Hu W, Britton RA, Kalkum M, Versalovic J Histamine derived from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses TNF via modulation of PKA and ERK signaling. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31951.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  24. 24.

    Yan F, Cao H, Cover TL, Whitehead R, Washington MK, Polk DB. Soluble proteins produced by probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(2):562–75.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  25. 25.

    Maslowski KM, Vieira AT, Ng A, Kranich J, Sierro F, Yu D, Schilter HC, Rolph MS, Mackay F, Artis D et al. Regulation of inflammatory responses by gut microbiota and chemoattractant receptor GPR43. Nature. 2009;461(7268):1282–6.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  26. 26.

    Matsumoto M, Kurihara S, Kibe R, Ashida H, Benno Y. Longevity in mice is promoted by probiotic-induced suppression of colonic senescence dependent on upregulation of gut bacterial polyamine production. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23652.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  27. 27.

    Watanabe T, Nishio H, Tanigawa T, Yamagami H, Okazaki H, Watanabe K, Tominaga K, Fujiwara Y, Oshitani N, Asahara T et al. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury: involvement of lactic acid. Am J Physiol Gastroint Liver Physiol. 2009;297(3):G506–13.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  28. 28.

    Chanput W, Mes JJ, Wichers HJ. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;23(1):37–45.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  29. 29.

    Menard S, Candalh C, Bambou JC, Terpend K, Cerf-Bensussan N, Heyman M. Lactic acid bacteria secrete metabolites retaining anti-inflammatory properties after intestinal transport. Gut. 2004;53(6):821–8.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  30. 30.

    Imaoka A, Shima T, Kato K, Mizuno S, Uehara T, Matsumoto S, Setoyama H, Hara T, Umesaki Y. Anti-inflammatory activity of probiotic Bifidobacterium: enhancement of IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ulcerative colitis patients and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(16):2511–6.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  31. 31.

    Jensen H, Dromtorp SM, Axelsson L, Grimmer S. Immunomodulation of monocytes by probiotic and selected lactic Acid bacteria. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2015;7(1):14–23.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  32. 32.

    Šušković J, Kos B, Beganović J, Leboš Pavunc A, Habjanič K, Matošić S. Antimicrobial activity–the most important property of probiotic and starter lactic acid bacteria. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2010;48(3):296–307.

  33. 33.

    Shokryazdan P, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Liang JB, Alitheen NB, Faseleh Jahromi M, Ho YW. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains. BioMed Res Int. 2014;2014:16.

  34. 34.

    Ouwehand AC, Salminen S. In vitro adhesion assays for probiotics and their in vivo relevance: a review. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2003;15(4):175–84.

  35. 35.

    Kang JH, Yun SI, Park MH, Park JH, Jeong SY, Park HO. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 in high-sucrose diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54617.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  36. 36.

    Poutahidis T, Springer A, Leovich T, Qi P, Varian BJ, Lakritz JR, Ibrahim YM, Chatzigiagkos A, Alm EJ, Erdman SE. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e84877.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  37. 37.

    Midzak AS, Chen H, Papadopoulos V, Zirkin BR. Leydig cell aging and the mechanisms of reduced testosterone synthesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;299(1):23–31.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  38. 38.

    Leovich T, Poutahidis T, Smillie C, Varian BJ, Ibrahim YM, Lakritz JR, Alm EJ, Erdman SE. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53867.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  39. 39.

    Hemarajata P, Gao C, Pflughoeft KJ, Thomas CM, Saulnier DM, Spinler JK, Versalovic J. Lactobacillus reuteri-specific immunoregulatory gene rsiR modulates histamine production and immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri. J Bacteriol. 2013;195(24):5567–76.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  40. 40.

    Liu Y, Fatheree NY, Mangalat N, Rhoads JM. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastroint Liver Physiol. 2010;299(5):G1087–96.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  41. 41.

    Poutahidis T, Kleinewietfeld M, Smillie C, Leovich T, Perrotta A, Bhela S, Varian BJ, Ibrahim YM, Lakritz JR, Kearney SM et al. Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68596.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  42. 42.

    Liu Y, Tran DQ, Fatheree NY, Marc Rhoads J. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 differentially modulates effector memory T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in a mouse model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Am J Physiol Gastroint Liver Physiol. 2014;307(2):G177–86.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  43. 43.

    Dao Jr H, Kazin RA. Gender differences in skin: a review of the literature. Gender Med. 2007;4(4):308–28.

  44. 44.

    McCabe LR, Irwin R, Schaefer L, Britton RA. Probiotic Use Decreases Intestinal Inflammation and Increases Bone Density in Healthy Male but not Female Mice. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228(8):1793–8.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  45. 45.

    Karunasena E, McMahon KW, Chang D, Brashears MM. Host responses to the pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and beneficial microbes exhibit host sex specificity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014;80(15):4481–90.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  46. 46.

    Celiberto LS, Bedani R, Rossi EA, Cavallini DC. The Scientific Evidence in the Context of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2014.941457.

  47. 47.

    Bradley JR. TNF-mediated inflammatory disease. J Pathol. 2008;214(2):149–60.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  48. 48.

    Chun J, Lee JH, Jung Y, Kim M, Kim S, Kim BK, Lim YW. EzTaxon: a web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57(Pt 10):2259–61.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  49. 49.

    Müller-Röver S, Handjiski B, van der Veen C, Eichmuller S, Foitzik K, McKay IA, Stenn KS, Paus R. A comprehensive guide for the accurate classification of murine hair follicles in distinct hair cycle stages. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117(1):3–15.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar

Source: https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-016-0686-7

Drugs & Medications

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic
Drugs & Medications

  • Uses
  • Side Effects
  • Precautions
  • Interactions
  • Overdose
  • Images
  • Uses
  • Side Effects
  • Precautions
  • Interactions
  • Overdose
  • Images

Uses

Probiotics contain different types of micro-organisms such as yeast (saccharomyces boulardii) and bacteria (such as lactobacillus, bifidobacterium). Micro-organisms (flora) are naturally found in the stomach/intestines/vagina. Some conditions (such as antibiotic use, travel) can change the normal balance of bacteria/yeast. Probiotics are used to improve digestion and restore normal flora.

Probiotics have been used to treat bowel problems (such as diarrhea, irritable bowel), eczema, vaginal yeast infections, lactose intolerance, and urinary tract infections.

Probiotics are available in foods (such as yogurt, milk, juices, soy beverages) and as dietary supplements (capsules, tablets, powders). Different products have different uses. Check the label for information on uses for your particular product.

Some diet supplement products have been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your pharmacist for more details regarding the particular brand you use.

The FDA has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Follow all directions on the product package. Refer to the label directions for your specific product to see if the dose should be swallowed whole, chewed, sprinkled onto food or mixed with liquid. If you are uncertain about any of the information, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Some probiotic products may contain live bacteria (such as bifidobacteria). Antibiotics may prevent these products from working well. Take any product containing live bacteria at least 2 to 3 hours before or after taking antibiotics. Follow the directions for your specific product.

If you are taking this product for diarrhea due to antibiotics, do not use it if you have a high fever or for more than 2 days, unless directed by your doctor. You may have a serious problem that requires medical treatment.

If your condition persists or worsens, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Side Effects

An increase in stomach gas or bloating may occur. If this effect persists or worsens, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unly but serious side effects occur: signs of infection (such as high fever, chills, persistent cough).

A very serious allergic reaction to this product is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US –

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Source: https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-20132/lactobacillus-reuteri-oral/details

What is L Reuteri?

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

Lactobacillus reuteri is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that has been found in various foods, especially meat and milk products.

It has been isolated from the intestines of many different mammals in the animal kingdom including rodents, pigs, sheep, and chickens, and is one of the most common organisms found in the human gut. It is one of the most numerous organisms in the mammalian gut microbiome.

Each type of mammal (rodents, pigs, chickens, people) has its own specific strain of the organism, leading scientists to believe that it is important to gut health of the host.

What Are The Researched Benefits of Taking L reuteri?

  • reduce salivary mutans streptococus (causes cavities)
  • reduce plaque on teeth
  • reduce nausea
  • inhibit and suppress H. pylori
  • decrease dyspepsia
  • reduce flatulence
  • reduce diarrhea (rotavirus and non-rotavirus)
  • decrease symptoms of IBS
  • stimulate the immune system
  • reduce colds and influenza
  • decrease atopic dermatitis
  • reduce IgE eczema in infancy
  • inhibit vaginal candidasis
  • reduce vagina pH
  • reduce infant colic
  • stabilize barrier function (reducing intestinal permeability)

The cool thing about L. reuteri is that it produces an antibiotic as a product of its metabolism. It makes a molecule that we now call reuterin that slows the growth of certain harmful bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi, and protozoa.A It makes enough to stop the bad guys but not enough to hurt the good guys. They can eliminate gut invaders without harming other, beneficial bacteria.

Where does it come from?

Even though L. reuteri is normal in humans, not everyone has it in their GI tract. Colonizing the gut with L. reuteri is easy with oral supplementation, although it does not necessarily stay there long-term unless it’s replenished. Again, good sources of L.

reuteri are dairy products and meat, items that are avoided by vegans and most vegetarians, so supplements are important. Interestingly, women who take L. reuteri supplements while breast feeding are more ly to transfer these helpful bacteria to their infant.

B

Who can benefit?

Once L. reuteri is in the gut, it begins to work its magic. It is particularly helpful in kids with diarrhea, where it significantly decreases the length of time the child is symptomatic and reduces the severity of the illness. Other studies have shown that giving L.

reuteri as prevention of diarrhea works well in children who are exposed to a diarrheal illness.C These studies were done in relation to a viral diarrhea, so L. reuteri even helps fight viral infections. It seems to work better than most other probiotics in this regard.

D

A more dramatic disease that responds to L. reuteri is necrotizing enterocolitis in premature babies, a dangerous disease with a high mortality rate in these vulnerable children. L. reuteri reduces the occurrence of sepsis and shortens the length of hospital stay.E

L. reuteri also seems to help in infant colic.B We don’t really know what causes infantile colic, making babies cry, have cramps, and have bouts of diarrhea, but giving L. reuteri in formula works better than simethicone. Again, we don’t know why but it works and it’s safe.

What about oral health?

The antibiotic effects of L. reuteri are also helpful in promoting oral health. As discussed in our post on probiotics in oral health, the known bad bug in gingivitis and cavities is called Streptococcus mutans. Of all the probiotic bacteria tested against this organism in one study, L.

reuteri was the only one that was able to block the growth of S. mutans.F (Krasse, 2006) And it works without causing any harmful effects on the teeth. This is big news since gingivitis and tooth decay are the most common infectious diseases in the world. Colonization of the mouth was accomplished through L.

reuteri-containing toothpastes, rinses, and gum.

More recent research

Some very cool recent research shows that L. reuteri can fight the bad gut pathogen Helicobacter pylori, known the be the cause of stomach ulcers. This is such a tough infection to treat and eliminate, and giving L. reuteri along with the usual triple antibiotic regimen helped eliminate the bacteria and reduce recurrence.G

The effectiveness of L. reuteri against Clostridium difficile seems to have inspired a new direction in intelligent design of next-generation probiotic supplements. C. difficile is a form of bacterial overgrowth in the colon caused by giving antibiotics too frequently.

This is particularly hard to treat since it makes people very sick, is contagious, and keeps coming back. L. reuteri to the rescue! Certain strains, when mixed with glycerol, produced higher levels of reuterin that were enough to fight off C.

difficile, leading to a cure and reducing relapses.F

All in all, giving L. reuteri results in better overall health. People who take it fall ill less often. Children in day care centers where L. reuteri is given stay healthier and are absent fewer days. Adults use fewer sick days. It just helps people feel better and stay healthier.

Where can I get some?

L. reuteri is present in many dairy products, but probiotic supplements are available with higher doses and better predictability.

Full Reference List

  1. Axelsson LT, Chung TC, Dobrogosz WJ, Lindgren SE. Production of a broad spectrum antimicrobial substance by Lactobacillus reuteri. Microbial ecology in health and disease. 1989 Jan 1;2(2):131-6.
  2. Sung V, D’Amico F, Cabana MD, Chau K, Koren G, Savino F, Szajewska H, Deshpande G, Dupont C, Indrio F, Mentula S. Lactobacillus reuteri to treat infant colic: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2018 Jan 1;141(1):e20171811.
  3. Urbańska M, Gieruszczak‐Białek D, Szajewska H. Systematic review with meta‐analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for diarrhoeal diseases in children. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2016 May;43(10):1025-34.
  4. Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkänen H, Salo E, Vesikari T. Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 1997 Dec 1;16(12):1103-7.
  5. Athalye‐Jape G, Rao S, Patole S. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 as a probiotic for preterm neonates: a strain‐specific systematic review. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. 2016 Aug;40(6):783-94.
  6. Krasse P, Carlsson B, Dahl C, Paulsson A, Nilsson A, Sinkiewicz G. Decreased gum bleeding and reduced gingivitis by the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. Swedish dental journal. 2006;30(2):55-60.
  7. Dore MP, Bibbò S, Loria M, Salis R, Manca A, Pes GM, Graham DY. Twice‐a‐day PPI, tetracycline, metronidazole quadruple therapy with Pylera® or Lactobacillus reuteri for treatment naïve or for retreatment of Helicobacter pylori. Two randomized pilot studies. Helicobacter. 2019 Sep 9:e12659.
  8. Spinler JK, Auchtung J, Brown A, Boonma P, Oezguen N, Ross CL, Luna RA, Runge J, Versalovic J, Peniche A, Dann SM. Next-generation probiotics targeting Clostridium difficile through precursor-directed antimicrobial biosynthesis. Infection and immunity. 2017 Oct 1;85(10):e00303-17.

Source: https://probiotics.org/l-reuteri/

L. reuteri – A common probiotic strain

Potential Benefits of the Lactobacillus reuteri Probiotic

Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic bacteria that lives in the mouth and gut of people. It is most commonly known for its benefits in treating several childhood ailments, but healthy doses of L. reuteri are capable of providing a wide range of benefits for people of all ages.

L. reuteri is one of the best probiotics for babies and children with colic

L. reuteri is able to aid or prevent a range of health issues in babies and children. One of the most notable benefits is its effectiveness in treating infantile colic.

Colic is a condition that causes stomach pain in babies and often results in bouts of crying for hours at a time. It is a common condition without a surefire medical solution. According to some recent studies, babies that are given regular L.

reuteri supplements spent less time crying each day from colic pain than children given simethicone, the traditional colic therapy.

And diarrhea especially when it’s from rotavirus

Another fantastic benefit of L. reuteri in children is its ability to help prevent and cure diarrhea, especially when that diarrhea is a symptom of rotavirus.

Rotavirus is a viral infection that can lead to diarrhea, dehydration, and many other harmful effects. Rotavirus causes around 500,000 deaths each year in children five years old and younger. Children that are given L.

reuteri have been shown to recover much more quickly from this potentially deadly illness.

And then there’s NEC

L. reuteri has also been shown to reduce the risk of NEC, a deadly condition in premature babies. According to recent studies, premature babies supplemented with L.

reuteri have a greatly reduced risk of suffering from NEC than babies without L. reuteri supplementation.

Probiotic-supplemented babies also showed some other wonderful improvements, reduced feed intolerance, reduced late-onset sepsis, and less time needed in the hospital before release.

Don’t forget about eczema

Finally, L. reuteri has been shown to help prevent eczema in children. Eczema is a group of diseases that can cause dry, itchy skin and rashes.

It is relatively common in babies and can worsen with age if left untreated.  Eczema can be treated with skin creams, but recent studies have shown that infants from mothers who take L.

reuteri supplements during pregnancy are less ly to develop eczema in the first place.

It has great benefits for adults too!

Children aren’t the only ones that can benefit from L. reuteri. Regular doses have been shown to have a wide range of beneficial effects in adults.

Some well-researched benefits include preventing workplace sickness, relieving constipation, promoting regular bowel movements, preventing and treating female Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s),  and reducing the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a harmful bacteria that has been linked to peptic ulcers and gastric cancer.

L. reuteri has been shown to assist in repairing leaky gut. Leaky gut is a syndrome that can lead to a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including bloating, gas, cramps, aches and pains, and food sensitivities.

It has also been shown to support dental health because it is the only probiotic found in the mouth with the ability to kill off certain kinds of bacteria that cause tooth decay. Healthy levels of L.

reuteri are able to keep these bacteria in check and keep your teeth intact.

It functions as a naturally occurring antibiotic

L. reuteri helps with general gut health through the production of a natural antibiotic substance called reuterin. Reuterin helps to keep the intestinal microbiota healthy by inhibiting growth of several kinds of harmful bacteria, yeast, and fungi.

Now if you’ve been following along with any of our previous blog entries or done some general research on probiotics, you might be wondering why a probiotic is producing an antibiotic substance.

Aren’t antibiotics responsible for killing off healthy bacteria in the gut? Absolutely! However, the reuterin produced by L. reuteri is an exception because it is produced in very specific amounts. L.

reuteri would need to produce 4-5 times the amount of reuterin that is necessary to kill bad bacteria in order to kill the good bacteria in the gut.

Summarizing the greatness of L. reuteri

As you can see, L. reuteri offers a wide range of health benefits for children and adults a. Unfortunately, many people do not have enough of this great probiotic to reap its many benefits.

SOURCES:

  • Tubelius P, Stan V, Zachrisson A: Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Environmental Health 2005, 4:25.
  • Imase K, Tanaka A, Tokunaga K, Sugano H, Ishida H, Takahashi S: Lactobacillus reuteri tablets suppress Helicobacter pylori infection – a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over clinical study.
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2007, 81(4): 387-393.
  • Ojetti V, Ianiro G, Tortora A, D’Angelo G, Di Rienzo TA, Bibbò S, Migneco A, Gasbarrini A. The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in adults with chronic functional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2014 Dec;23(4):387-91.

People who d this blog also read these:

Source: https://humarian.com/l-reuteri-common-probiotic-strain/

healthyincandyland.com