Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine benefits and side effects

Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine is a cognitive enhancement supplement that is believed to play a role in boosting memory and mental performance.

  • Benefits
  • Side effects
  • Recommended dosage
  • Recap

Benefits

Centrophenoxine is a modified version of dimethylaminoethanol, or DMAE, (an organic compound believed to stimulate the nervous system, prevent or slow mental deterioration and memory loss). It is designed to have better absorption and increased transportation to the brain. It is commonly sold under the brand name Lucidril and is found in some nootropics.

Researchers are also interested in learning more about its role in possibly treating anxiety, cancer and Parkinson’s disease.

Centrophenoxine may improve memory in dementia patients. A study published in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics reported on the ability of centrophenoxine to treat dementia.

A double-blind clinical trial was performed on 50 men and women with middle-stage dementia.

The results noted an increase in performance in psychometric tests as well as an increase in intracellular water content (of which dehydration is consistent with aging) (1).

In another study evaluating the effects of centrophenoxine on the learning and memory of old mice, it was found that the animals treated with the supplement were able to learn tasks quicker than the untreated mice.

They also exhibited a reduction of neuronal lipofuscin pigment in both the cerebral cortex (the area in the brain responsible for higher thought processes including speech and decision making) and the hippocampus (the center of emotion and memory) (2).

Neuronal lipofuscin pigments are fatty pigments that accumulate over time in nerve cells and are one the most prominent markers of cellular aging. The accumulation has been linked to dementia.

In an older study, it was found that centrophenoxine could improve brain stimulation and the formation of new long-term memories. What’s more, many of the subjects receiving centrophenoxine reported an increased level of mental alertness (3).

Centrophenoxine may help ease anxiety. In a study performed on anxiety-induced rats, researchers observed a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms in the rats given doses of either adafenoxate (a compound related to centrophenoxine) or centrophenoxine. The anti-anxiety effects of these two supplements are further being studied (4).

Centrophenoxine may help fight cancer. Early studies show the potential of centrophenoxine to help boost the effects of certain types of cancer drugs. It is believed that when it is used in combination with other cancer therapies, it makes drugs that are meant to damage and destroy cancer cells that much more effective.

Researchers are studying the effects of centrophenoxine on treating Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement.

Some of the biochemical features of Parkinson’s include a substantial deficit in dopamine content (loss of dopamine in the brain leads to issues with movement) and reduced glutathione (an antioxidant responsible for clearing toxins from cells, healing cellular damage, reducing free radicals and so much more).

In a 2009 study, researchers carried out a study to evaluate the antioxidant potential of centrophenoxine in rats infused with rotenone to reproduce many of the features of Parkinson’s.

At the end of the study, centrophenoxine had a significant effect in halting the depletion of dopamine and glutathione. In addition, the drug prevented the increase in nitric oxide. Elevations of nitric oxide are associated with this disease.

What’s more, microscopic analysis found that severe damage to the midbrain of the rats was diminished by centrophenoxine co-treatment (5).

Scientists are pursuing further studies in the hopes of getting closer to finding a treatment for the disease.

Centrophenoxine has been shown to increase the lifespan of mice. According to a 2002 study performed on mice, researchers were intrigued to discover that mice treated with centrophenoxine had an increased lifespan by 30 to 50 percent (6). Researchers are not sure why but are interesting in digging deeper.

Centrophenoxine may help symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder that is caused by the long-term use of some anti-psychotic medications.

Symptoms range from mild to severe and may include uncontrollable movements of the mouth, rapid movements of the body, rapid blinking and disfigured facial features such as drooping of the mouth and eyes.

In a study published in Biological Psychiatry, participants were given a daily oral dose of 600–1200 mg of centrophenoxine, for 6 to 12 weeks. At the end of the study, the degree of involuntary movement was evaluated. Among 11 subjects with tardive dyskinesia, four improved markedly, one moderately, two slightly, and there was no improvement in four.

One patient with subacute mouth movements, induced by administration of neuroleptics for one month, improved markedly (7).

Side effects

Current information available deems it to be generally safe and nontoxic.

Information about the safety of centrophenoxine supplementation is limited, however, and it can raise acetylcholine levels. An excess of acetylcholine could cause mild side effects nausea, headache, stomach issues and drowsiness.

People with major depression, bipolar disorder, seizure disorders, or Parkinson’s disease should avoid this drug, as too much acetylcholine can worsen these conditions.

Also, pregnant and nursing women should avoid using it. Because of its DMAE content, it has the potential to cause birth defects.

There have been several different dosing recommendations for centrophenoxine.

A typical dose is 250 mg. A cumulative daily dosage ranging from 500-1000 mg is generally considered both safe and effective for most healthy adults interested in its cognitive benefits. It is best taken in two divided doses at breakfast and lunch.

It is advisable to consult a medical professional before exceeding the recommended daily dosage.

Recap

Centrophenoxine is a cognitive enhancing supplement that plays a role in improving memory and mental performance. Limited studies also show its potential in helping to treat anxiety, cancer, Parkinson’s disease and involuntary body movements related to the neurological disorder, tardive dyskinesia.

Though centrophenoxine has been studied for decades — dating back to the late 70s and 80s, its precise mechanisms of action are still not entirely clear.

Many experts are interested in performing new studies to better understand its function, efficacy and safety for human use.

Another area of study researchers are interested in delving into deeper is whether or not it can benefit younger individuals by playing a role in preventing memory loss and improving cognitive abilities.

Source: https://bodynutrition.org/centrophenoxine/

Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine is sometimes touted as a “nootropic”, or “cognitive-enhancing” compound. Some people claim that it can protect the brain, enhance cognitive function, and even extend lifespan.

But what does the science say about its effects, and how much do we actually know about its safety in human users? Read on to learn more about what the current research says about this drug’s potential effects, mechanisms, possible side-effects, and more!

What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine, also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate, is one of the earliest and most studied nootropics, or so-called “smart” drugs.

Originally developed in 1959, this drug has been studied for its potential to help age-related brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. It is also used by healthy people to enhance memory and cognitive function and improve overall brain health [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Centrophenoxine is a combination of two chemicals:

  • Dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), which is a natural substance found in some foods (fish, seafood) and in small amounts in the brain. It is a source of choline, and is believed to have stimulating effects on the brain [7].
  • Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA), a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called “auxins” [4].

Mechanisms

DMAE is the main active component in this drug. Normally, DMAE doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier very well – however, in the form of centrophenoxine, some studies suggest that it can cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain effectively [8, 4, 9].

Once it is absorbed in the body, a portion of centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and pCPA in the liver. DMAE is then converted to choline, while the remaining centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body [2, 9].

Although its precise mechanisms are still being actively studied, some early research has suggested a variety of potential mechanisms that may be responsible for some of centrophenoxine’s effects.

Some of these proposed mechanisms include:

  • Increasing acetylcholine in the brain. This is a major neurotransmitter that is believed to be essential for cognitive functions such as memory and learning [8, 10].
  • Reducing lipofuscin. Lipofuscin is a waste product that builds up in cells (including brain cells) as we age. This is the same waste product that causes brown liver spots on the skin [11, 12].
  • Increasing glucose uptake (more energy) and promoting blood flow (more oxygen) throughout the brain and its cells [13, 14].
  • Increasing RNA production. This may increase protein turnover in neurons where worn-out or free radical-damaged proteins can be more effectively replaced [13, 15].
  • Protecting neurons from oxidative stress by boosting antioxidant defenses [3, 16].

Potential Effects

While a number of centrophenoxine’s potential effects have been studied, much of this research is still in a relatively early stage, and in most cases it is difficult to come to any firm conclusions about its relative efficacy and safety in healthy human users.

This is a common situation for many so-called “nootropic” supplements and compounds, as these tend not to receive as much scientific attention as other drugs, such as pharmaceutical medications that are used by doctors to treat specific medical conditions. As a result, even supplements and compounds that are relatively “well-studied” often still don’t have the amount of research needed to officially classify them as effective, or get FDA approval for specific uses.

Therefore, the potential effects listed below are still considered to have “insufficient evidence”, and should be taken with a grain of salt until further research work – including large-scale clinical trials in healthy human users – is performed.

1) May Affect Learning and Memory

As a so-called “nootropic”, or “cognitive-enhancing” compound, centrophenoxine has been claimed to be able to boost certain cognitive functions – such as learning and memory – in its users. But what does the actual science have to say about this?

Although some studies have reported centrophenoxine to be beneficial in certain populations of older individuals, there are no solid scientific studies to back up its use as a nootropic in young adults.

For example, centrophenoxine was reported to help promote the formation of long-term memories and increased alertness, according to one study in 60 healthy – but elderly – human subjects [17].

Similarly, centrophenoxine was also reported to improve memory in 50 elderly patients with dementia [1].

On the animal research side, one study mice reported that centrophenoxine improved learning and memory in aged mice [4].

However, both of the early human studies described above – while promising – were limited to older users, or those with specific age-related medical conditions. Therefore, these preliminary results can’t yet be taken as solid proof of nootropic effects in younger, healthy human users without much more additional research in appropriately representative human populations.

LACKING EVIDENCE:

The following potential uses of centrophenoxine are based solely on animal- and cell-based studies, and lack any appropriate human trials so far. Therefore, these are only potential “launching-points” for future clinical studies in humans, and no solid conclusions can be made about these effects in human users until additional research is done.

1) May Be Neuroprotective

One of the more widespread claims about centrophenoxine is that it may potentially help protect the brain and its cells from stress and damage – in other words, that it may be “neuro-protective.”

A few lines of research in animals have reported early findings that offer some preliminary support for this effect, although appropriate human trials are so far lacking.

For example, several animal studies have reported that centrophenoxine may protect nerve cells from oxidative damage due to toxin exposure or stroke.

In rats with various types of brain injury, centrophenoxine was reported to reduce the damage caused by free-radicals, and may have prevented some cognitive deficits that sometimes result from elevated oxidative stress, such as impairments to memory, overall cognitive function, and movement/motor control [8, 18, 19, 14].

Similarly, according to some other animal studies (in rats), centrophenoxine reportedly increases the activity of major antioxidant enzymes glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, which may partially account for some of its purported beneficial effects [3, 12].

Additionally, other studies have reported that it may increase energy use in the brain’s cells, such as by stimulating glucose uptake and oxygen consumption, which are each essential factors when it comes to how the brain uses and produces cellular energy [13, 20, 3, 21].

Nonetheless, all of the above findings have been reported in animal or cell studies only, and extensive additional research in humans will be necessary to know whether these effects translate over to healthy human users of centrophenoxine as well.

2) May Improve Mood

Another relatively common claim made about centrophenoxine is that it may have mood-boosting effects.

Unfortunately, no human research has been done on potential mood effects from centrophenoxine, specifically.

However, according to one early study of 80 healthy subjects, taking a different drug containing DMAE for three months was reported to increase their perceived energy levels and overall sense of well-being [22].

This offers suggestive evidence that centrophenoxine could theoretically improve mood through its active DMAE component – however, this preliminary finding would have to be backed up by studies specifically using centrophenoxine in order to properly confirm this effect.

Additionally, one animal study reported that centrophenoxine significantly reduced anxiety in rats exposed to stress [23]. However, follow-up studies in humans would be needed to make sure the effect translates to human users as well.

3) May Increase Lifespan

Centrophenoxine has also been touted as having potential effects on overall lifespan – but how good is the actual evidence behind this?

So far, these effects have only been looked at by animal studies.

According to one animal study, centrophenoxine was reported to extend the lifespan of mice by 30 to 40% [24].

Centrophenoxine has also been reported to potentially reverse the effects of aging in the brain – specifically, by reducing free radicals and lipofuscin buildup in the rat brain (hippocampus), both of which are linked to neurodegenerative disease [11].

However, the mechanisms of aging may be very different between mice and humans, and so all of these early findings would have to be followed up on by clinical trials in humans in order to properly verify these potential effects.

Side-Effects & Safety

any drug, centrophenoxine has the potential to cause adverse side-effects, some of which could be potentially quite serious.

Importantly, because this compound is relatively new, there is not much evidence about how safe it is for human users, or how frequently it might lead to negative side-effects.

For this reason, we would strongly advise against experimenting with this compound until more data about its safety is available.

If you do make the personal decision to experiment with it, make sure to discuss it with your doctor first! Also make sure that he- or she is fully up-to-date about any other medications or drugs you may be taking, any pre-existing health conditions, or other lifestyle and dietary factors that could potentially impact your health. Only your doctor has the appropriate medical expertise to help you properly manage the potential side-effects, adverse drug interactions, and other potentially negative outcomes from using nootropic compounds.

Safety Concerns

Although only a small amount of research on centrophenoxine’s safety in humans has been done so far, the early work that does exists suggests that it is generally safe – or at least not obviously toxic [1, 25, 26].

However, centrophenoxine can raise acetylcholine levels. An excess of acetylcholine could cause mild side effects nausea, headache, gut issues, and sleeplessness [27].

Contraindications

People with major depression, bipolar disorder, seizure disorders, or Parkinson’s disease should probably avoid this drug, as too much acetylcholine can worsen these conditions, according to many scientific and clinical reports [28, 29, 30, 31, 32].

Also, pregnant women should avoid it because its DMAE component may cause birth defects [33].

Dosage

Note: The information in this section contains information about the dosages commonly used by some of the early studies that have been done on centrophenoxine so far.

The information below is not intended as a guide for personal use of centrophenoxine, as adequate data about its potency, safety, or overall effects in healthy human populations is not currently available.

This drug comes in powdered form and capsules. Doses used in clinical trials are typically 600 to 2000 mg/day, taken in two divided doses at breakfast and lunch [1, 17, 25].

Some users report combining centrophenoxine with racetams, although no hard data on the safety of this is available.

However, according to one preliminary animal study, combining choline with piracetam enhanced memory in old rats. Since centrophenoxine is a good source of choline, this finding could suggest that chole may enhance the effectiveness of other racetams in improving learning and memory [34, 35]. However, there are no human studies that support this combination.

Interactions

Because the main component in centrophenoxine – DMAE – is believed to act (at least in part) by increasing acetylcholine levels [8, 10], it may have unpredictable interactions with other drugs that affect this neurotransmitter and other choline-related mechanisms, such as:

  • Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors
  • Cholinergic drugs
  • Anticholinergic drugs

Although specific studies on centrophenoxine’s potential interactions with these substances are currently lacking, the potential for interactions means that caution is advised when using centrophenoxine alongside any other medications, supplements, or drugs that fall into one of the above categories.

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/centrophenoxine/

Centrophenoxine

Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine is primarily used as a precursor or prodrug for DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol), which helps to improve cognitive abilities in the elderly [1]. Although the primary use for centrophenoxine is with senile dementia and Alzheimer’s patients, many young adults can see benefits from using the drug as well.

Beyond the memory and cognitive enhancement, centrophenoxine is considered a neuroprotective agent, helps improve stimulation in some studies [2], and is thought to be an anti-aging tool that increases lifespans 30-50% [3].

Editors’ Thoughts on Centrophenoxine

I have not taken centrophenoxine, but it has been interesting to see the popularity within the community. I am particularly interested in the anti-aging information, which suggests quite a large increase in mice. Cautiously optimistic on that one.

Also, I think it is important for me to point to the opinion of Kurtis Frank [4], who is an editor and main contributor on Examine.com. He states:

“Centrophenoxine looks promising for a 1-time cognition boost. Un many supplements, one ‘cycle' of Centrophenoxine could yield benefits for much longer than just the time ingested. Un other compounds where one would need to take it everyday for life, one can take a bottle of Centrophenoxine and reap benefits for a long time.”

Coming from him, those are pretty strong words, though I could not find anything in the literature to suggest as much (I’m sure it exists).

Mansal Denton, Nootropedia Editor

Centrophenoxine

Benefits of Centrophenoxine

The primary benefit of centrophenoxine is that it acts as a prodrug for DMAE. This molecule is primarily useful for reducing certain molecules that build-up in the brain over time and reduce cognitive function. By removing these molecules, elderly can not only halt signs of aging, but can actively reverse them [5].

Centrophenoxine is a more readily absorbed version of DMAE, which makes it more useful for improving cognition. Studies suggest the drug can help to treat dementia and increase cognitive skills over 8 weeks [6]. Another study on DMAE showed improvement in Alzheimer’s patients, though the results were not too significant [7].

While the research is incredibly limited (and specific to mice, not humans), one major centrophenoxine benefit might be with anti-aging and lifespan. Work in the American Academy of Anti-Aging shows a 30 – 50% lifespan increase with mice [8].

According to some studies, centrophenoxine can also increase acetylcholine release in the brain [9]. While more evidence is needed, this is an important mechanism for cognition and memory.

Side Effects of Centrophenoxine

As with many nootropic drugs, there are always risks no matter how helpful. The side effects of centrophenoxine are rare and it is considered to be very safe [10], but there are some rare issues to keep in mind. Some people experience insomnia, restlessness, or dizziness. These are often related to the timing of consumption (i.e: too close to sleep).

Of course, as with many cholinergics, there is a possibility for a headache related to acetylcholine metabolism in the brain.

Finally, females of child-bearing age should avoid both DMAE and centrophenoxine due to teratogenic effects, which are birth defects in infants.

Centrophenoxine Dosage

The typical centrophenoxine dosage is 250 mg, but the number of doses per day will depend on the age and goals. For elderly looking for therapeutic and neuroprotective benefits, 3 – 6 doses of 250 mg is generally most useful.

In the case of younger individuals seeking enhancement, 1 – 3 doses of 250 mg is enough to see positive results.

Centrophenoxine Nootropic Stacks

The popularity of centrophenoxine within the nootropic community has led to much testing and stacking of drugs together. For many individuals, combining centrophenoxine with other compounds provides synergies and cognitive boosts (in theory). From anecdotal experience here are some of the stacks people use, but note that few (if any) of these have been tested in a scientific setting.

Centrophenoxine and racetams – the obvious choice for a cholinergic drug is a family known as racetams.

This family of drugs includes things piracetam, aniracetam, oxiracetam, and lesser known phenylpiracetam, coluracetam, and fasoracetam. There are many, but all of them work in unique ways with centrophenoxine.

Be conscious that these drugs can amplify the effects of centrophenoxine so it might be best to start with smaller doses.

Centrophenoxine and huperzine A – there are some cholinergic compounds huperzine A that can add to the effects of centrophenoxine. Again, this is adding more to a good thing so it may be useful to start with low doses and see how you feel.

Centrophenoxine and modafinil – because centrophenoxine is a memory enhancer and neuroprotective, combining it with drugs that can improve focus and concentration is helpful for some people.

Modafinil is a go-to drug of choice for many in the nootropics community (alongside similar cousins adrafinil and armodafinil).

There are other stimulant options caffeine and L-theanine for those with higher sensitivity to stimulants.

Centrophenoxine and unique blends – there are many unique blended stacks coming onto the market and it seems many people enjoy stacking them with others.

Centrophenoxine is rarely in the unique blends because it is considered “experimental” even though there is a sizable database of scientific information.

The only blend that already has this nootropic is Qualia, but things Mind Lab Pro, OptiMind, Alpha Brain, and especially all the Four Sigmatic products stay away from it.

How and Where to Buy Centrophenoxine

Centrophenoxine is a rarer nootropic and thus you will not find it at local grocery or health food stores. Very few brick and mortar locations are going to have centrophenoxine for sale. You must look online in order to buy centrophenoxine and the best products will be from our trusted vendor Pure Nootropics.

We suggest you purchase centrophenoxine from Pure Nootropics as they are a reputable vendor and the quality of their products is always high.

Selected Community Experiences

“Has anyone else using centrophenoxine noticed an interesting difference when you find something humourous, especially when laughing? I find I get quite a nice buzz off even the mildest laughter within the first few hours of taking my daily centro.” [11] – bicycle_samurai

“Started Centrophenoxine on Monday and been feeling depressed ever since. Only been taking the lowest amount, 250mg. I've also fallen asleep each time after taking it, even though it's supposed to be stimulating.

I can feel it working the first 30 mins, a bit over stimulating, then I'll just crash and feel sleepy and take an hour long power nap. This has happened every day since I started 4 days ago.

Decided to skip out on Centrophenoxine today and just took Piracetam by itself with no choline source and the depression has subsided and I'm back to my normal, giggly self.” [12] – MexicanCarbs

References (Click to Expand)

Source: https://www.nootropedia.com/centrophenoxine/

Centrophenoxine Review: Benefits, Dosage, Stacking and Side Effects

Centrophenoxine: Potential Uses & Side-Effects

Centrophenoxine is one of the most powerful nootropics that we currently know about. That’s because of its various positive effects on memory, cognition, and brain functions. It is similar to the Alpha-GPC substance that we have in our brain and it enhances choline molecule production, through which it helps improve cognition and slow down memory loss.

Summary

Centrophenoxine is one of the most well known nootropics. It’s also referred to as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate and many clinical tests have been done on this substance. This is a very strong nootropic that can boost memory while providing additional choline that can be used in combination with other nootropics.

Centrophenoxine is a nootropic that affects cognitive abilities and memory, and this makes it a cholinergic. At the moment this is one of the most popular cholinergic compounds that you can find on the market. It’s usually used together with DMAE, a choline molecule, as it can help Centrophenoxine get delivered to the brain more efficiently and enhance its effects.

This nootropic can be bought online or over the counter. It’s main effects include reducing the symptoms of old age such as memory loss and dementia, improved brain functions and it can also have these effects on younger users.

Additionally, there are many trials that have show that Centrophenoxine is also a neuroprotectant and an antioxidant, reducing the negative effects of free radicals and toxins in our brain.

Centrophenoxine Benefits and Effects

Given the fact that centrophenoxine has been researched for years, all of its benefits have been clearly proven and tested. This means that none of these things is considered a placebo or an uncertainty – one of the oldest nootropics was developed over 60 years ago.

Centrophenoxine is basically a combination of two substances: DMAE and pCPA. There are many studies that show how DMAE helps increase the levels of acetylcholine, while preventing choline from being delivered to the peripheral system around the body. This is why centrophenoxine provides more choline that can be used to synthesize higher amounts of acetylcholine.

Given the fact that Centrophenoxine has been researched for years, all of its benefits have been clearly proven and tested

Still the problem is that there is little evidence showing that it can cross the blood-brain barrier on its own. This is why pCPA is added to solve the transport problem. Centrophenoxine is a highly water-soluble supplement, meaning that it enters the brain very quickly after being consumed.

When it gets into the brain it protects neurons and improves signal transmission. Centrophenoxine is very effective because it almost instantly starts boosting acetylcholinesterase around various parts of the brain. This is a very important enzyme that allows acetylcholine synthesis.

Improved Brain Memory

Memory formation is improved when we have higher levels of acetylcholine. Given the fact that Centrophenoxine enhances various cholinergic activities, one of the substances that is produced is choline, amongst other different phospholipids

This means that more acetylcholine gets produced, leading to improved communication between neurons. With acetylcholine levels increased, memory is improved as well. This makes centrophenoxine one of the most effective nootropics for improving memory.

This kind of memory improvement is especially effective in helping the brain form better long-term memories, store them and retrieve memories of something that happened a while ago. A lot of studies show that Centrophenoxine is more effective than Alpha GPC, which is also a choline source, and that it works better with older people.

Improved Cognitive Functions

Centrophenoxine can be used as a DMAE prodrug and this is very important, as this molecule is quite effective at reducing other harmful molecule build-up within the brain that could cause a drastic reduction in cognitive functions. With these molecules removed, older people can slow down their aging and reverse some side-effects of old age.

Additionally, centrophenoxine is absorbed more easily than other DMAE, meaning that it’s more effective for improving cognitive functions. There are many studies that show this nootropic has the power to help increase a person’s cognitive skills and help patients fight dementia.

Improved Lifespan

One of the many studies that were conducted on mice have shown that centrophenoxine has the power to expand the lifespan of mice and give them anti-aging capabilities. A study done in the American Anti-Aging Academy has shown that the lifespan of the tested mice has increased from 30 to 50 percent.

Most of the brain cell membrane consists fat and as we age it constantly oxidizes. This means that a lot of free radicals build up within the brain and they cannot be efficiently removed by brain cells as we grow older.

Many studies have shown that Centrophenoxine is able to clean all of the lipofuscin and free radicals that gather in brain cells. It also prevents the created cellular waste from piling up to begin with and keeps the brain “clean”.

Increased Brain Energy

The energy of our brain is directly dependant on the amount of oxygen and glucose that we take in. Given the fact that centrophenoxine has the power to improve the chemical activity within the brain, it needs to increase glucose and oxygen absorption.

Simply put, this is the fuel our brain needs and more of it means more energy in the brain. With higher levels of energy in our brain, people also have more motivation, the ability to concentrate better and stay focused for longer periods of time.

How Centrophenoxine Works?

Even though the history of research on centrophenoxine is over 50 years long there are still people debating how it works precisely.

Still, it has been proven that centrophenoxine is a precursor for acetylcholine, meaning that it helps increase the amount of acetylcholine and that it passively has a positive effect on cognitive abilities and performance. The debate is about which pathway is the right one and there are two most probable theories:

Centrophenoxine gets converted into phospholipid that helps increase acetylcholine production.

Centrophenoxine breaks down and becomes choline within the brain and then enhances acetylcholine production.

No matter which pathway is the right one, it is known that the cholinergic activity caused by this nootropic is responsible for all the benefits and cognitive improvements. Since centrophenoxine improves oxygen intake within the brain by enabling better blood flow, this substance also improves mental energy levels.

Centrophenoxine has a smooth transition from blood to the brain and it behaves as an antioxidant. With this effect, the brain is protected from free radicals and all of the toxins that have a negative effect on the brain are flushed away. Given the fact that brain cells get the support they need, it is only natural that the whole organ starts functioning better.

Centrophenoxine Dosage

Most scientists and vendors that sell this smart drug recommend taking around 250 mg of this substance twice per day. People that use this nootropic for a long time take over 1000 mg every day, but this is only because they are very resistant to the supplement and they weren’t sensitive to it when they started using it.

Similarly to all the other nootropics, it’s best to start with a low, recommended dose and see how you feel after using it for some time and whether or not you notice any difference. When you’ve learned how it works, you can start to increase the dosage after some time to make sure that the effects are on point.

In general, most people tolerate centrophenoxine and even though this is the case, make sure to be safe and start with a dosage of 250 mg per day. Of course, it is also important to consider how old you are. If you are an older person, you can start increasing your dosages, and if not it’s generally better to take it slow, unless you have severe memory problems.

How to Use it

No matter what dosage we are talking about, it’s generally a good idea to split it up, even if it’s just the starting 250 mg. Take half of your daily dose in the morning and the other half during the afternoon. Even though increased energy is a great benefit, you don’t want to take the supplement too late during the day and disrupt your sleeping patterns.

Centrophenoxine is very effective when stacked with some other supplement that increases acetylcholine and we will talk about this in just a bit. By choosing good stacks you can have different supplements complement each other and get even greater benefits.

Centrophenoxine Stacking

If you plan on using some sort of stack of supplements, it’s important that you are mindful of the doses. Make sure that you learn the proper supplement ratios and what amount of total supplements you should take. Don’t surpass the dosage of an individual supplement, and in some cases, you will even have to reduce individual dosages.

This is how you will be able to get the benefits while avoiding side-effects. Look for instructions online or talk to your doctor about the supplements and dosages you need to take. Given the fact that centrophenoxine is a very good choline source, you can find it in many nootropic stacks – some of the most common ones are Noopept and Racetams.

Piracetam and Centrophenoxine are some of the best stacks as they complement each other quite well. Given the fact that Centrophenoxine is a known cholinergic, it serves as a great source of chlorine that Piracetam needs. This means that the headaches that could be caused by Piracetam are limited.

In most cases the headaches are caused by low choline levels. When you take these two supplements combined, they will be more effective and work faster. In most cases it’s a good idea to first take only centrophenoxine until you find your right dosage and then when taking this stack go with a 2:1 ratio.

Piracetam and Centrophenoxine are some of the best stacks as they complement each other quite well.

Centrophenoxine Side-Effects

This is one of the nootropic supplements that are considered to be very safe. Any healthy adult that doesn’t have serious medical issues will have no problems using centrophenoxine. Still, with any other substance, there are potential side-effects that can happen to a small percentage of people and it’s important to mention them.

Given the fact that this is a non-toxic supplement all of the possible side-effects are very mild and they won’t cause any severe health issues or discomforts. Some of the most common side-effects that can happen include insomnia, headaches, stomach issues and irritability.

If you notice having any of the side-effects mentioned above, then lower your dosage or simply consult your doctor and stop using these supplements. If the side-effects are constant make sure to stop using these supplements immediately.

In most cases side-effects happen because people take other drugs which these supplements should not be combined with, or because they have health issues. In this case, the best thing to do is to go and consult your doctor, explain what this supplement is about and they will tell you if you can use it.

Where to Buy Centrophenoxine

One of the ways to buy it, and probably the best option, is to order a nootropic supplement or stack online. Still, there are a lot of vendors offering these products online and it’s very important to perform a thorough check before buying something from a vendor you don’t know.

This is why we suggest these products that are verified and safe to use. Centrophenoxine is completely legal and you can order as much of it as you want online. Instead of ordering constantly, it’s better to get enough for a whole month and you might even get discounts.

This is one of the smartest ways to buy “smart drugs” to try them out and see for yourself what great benefits they have. You can also find centrophenoxine products to buy over the counter, but not many stores have them and the choice is more limited.

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Conclusion

We have advanced so far when it comes to our health and taking care of our bodies. Today, we invest a lot to age in a healthy fashion, however, we need to go a step further and work on keeping our brain sharp and be able to have good focus when we grow old.

No matter if you are a grown adult who needs enhanced long-term and short-term memory or a senior who has had dementia or some form of mental decline, this valuable choline supplement can help you a lot in improving cognitive functions.

This is an effective and safe cholinergic that has been tested, tried and proven. If you have similar problems with the ones mentioned above, trying out centrophenoxine is a good idea and you shouldn’t miss the new chance that has opened.

Source: https://brainalia.com/nootropics/centrophenoxine/

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