- CDP Choline Review: Benefits, Dosage, Stacking and Side Effects
- Cdp Choline Benefits and Effects
- How Cdp Choline Works
- CDP Choline Dosage
- CDP Choline Stacking
- CDP Choline Side Effects
- Where to Buy Cdp Choline
- Citicoline Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database
- Adverse Reactions
- Uses and Pharmacology
- 5 Citicoline (CDP-Choline) Benefits + Dosage & Side Effects
- What is Citicoline?
- How It Works
- Dietary Sources
- CDP-Choline vs. Alpha-GPC
- Age-Related Cognitive Decline
- Nootropic Effects
- 2) Stroke Recovery
- 3) Vision Problems
- Optic Neuropathy
- Insufficient Evidence:
- 4) Brain Damage
- Alzheimer’s Disease
- Parkinson’s Disease
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Meth and Cocaine Addiction
- Side Effects & Safety
- Citicoline in Addictive Disorders: A Review of the Literature
CDP Choline Review: Benefits, Dosage, Stacking and Side Effects
CDP choline is a widely used nootropic. It is a natural compound renowned for its beneficial effects. It is often used to fight neurological disorders, alleviate symptoms of head trauma and during ischemia. CDP choline also has anti-addictive and cognitive boosting effects. This is why it is the preferred nootropic with people suffering from memory disorders.
CDP choline (cytidine diphosphate-choline) is also known as Citicoline. In the world of biochemistry, it is known as cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine, and this molecule is an intermediate.
This means that it is synthesized in the process of phosphatidylcholine generation from choline, which occurs in cell membranes naturally, with both animals and humans.
It is a compound that belongs in the choline-containing phospholipids category and it can be ingested orally.
When ingested, it introduces two molecules to our bodies – choline and uridine. The process of CDP choline digestion breaks down this molecule into cytidine and choline. Cytidine is then converted into uridine.
This supplement is known for its positive effects in the treatment of memory impairments, and both uridine and choline have been linked to better learning.
Besides, they act as neuroprotective molecules, further enhancing the effect CDP choline has on our learning capacity.
Multiple studies have linked CDP choline intake with better cognitive performance, and students often use it as a memory enhancer during exam periods.
Some studies have also established a link between CDP choline intake and increased attention, and this compound is also known to have anti-addictive effects – studies have confirmed that CDP choline can help fight both food and cocaine addictions.
Cdp Choline Benefits and Effects
CDP choline is a very powerful and commonly used nootropic supplement that is able to improve brain health and enhance specific aspects of cognition. Here are some benefits and effects linked to CDP Choline.
Enhances the Effects of Other Nootropics. People who regularly use nootropics have come to the conclusion that CDP choline is the key ingredient of nootropic stacks and should be considered a must-have supplement when combining other supplements to get enhanced effects.
When taken with nootropics from the racetam category, CDP choline makes their effect even stronger while preventing side effects related to racetam intake, such as minor headaches. A study has also shown that taking piracetam with CDP choline delays the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, specifically the cognitive deterioration ones.
Improves Memory and Prevents Memory Loss. There is not a study of CDP choline and its effects that haven’t concluded that it has the ability to improve memory and prevent memory loss. Since researchers have associated CDP choline with anti-aging effects, scientist are now devoted to identifying the therapeutic effects of CDP choline in Alzheimer’s disease.
Increased Focus and Enhanced Concentration. When it comes to completing complex tasks, not only does one have to be mentally engaged, but also remain focused and concentrated on the task at hand. CDP choline has the ability to help by increasing focus and enhancing concentration.
It can be used by people who have to remain concentrated over long periods of time, or those who experienced a stroke or brain injury and have problems with focus and concentration. The studies have confirmed that these patients can use CDP choline to achieve a significant improvement.
Increased levels of Mental Energy. As you know, we all have a limited amount of mental energy that diminishes as the day goes by. Well, CDP choline increases mental energy levels and allows people to maintain high concentration levels during their everyday activities. CDP choline can be also used to mitigate the effect that aging has on mental energy.
It Helps Repair Brain Cells. CDP choline also exhibits a neuroprotective effect, i.e. it helps with repair brain cells. The brain cells can be damaged due to many factors, the main one being environmental stress. Since CDP choline is an antioxidant as well, i.e. it removes free radicals from our body, it also protects brain cells from excessive damage.
It Improves Visual Function. There are studies suggesting that CDP Choline has beneficial effects for patients with glaucoma. CDP choline improves the visual function of these patients and helps them with some of the major symptoms related to this condition.
How Cdp Choline Works
Since CDP Choline was the subject of many studies, we are now completely aware of its functions and the processes it is involved in. It has been classified as a psychostimulant nootropic with several functions:
• It helps in repairing and restoring building blocks of neural cell membranes• It affects the balance of dopamine in the central neural system by increasing its production
• It increases the production of acetylcholine, another very important neurotransmitter
After coming into the body, CDP choline is broken down into cytidine and choline. Then, due to its small molecule size, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is important to note that our body immediately converts cytidine into uridine, a compound that has a positive effect on the neural membrane and cognition.
Since our brains prefer to use choline when acetylcholine has to be synthesized, there is a very limited amount of choline available for phosphatidylcholine synthesis. What’s even worse, when our brain needs choline, it takes it from neuronal membranes. This happens during ischemia, and the result of this process are lots of free radicals (hydroxyl radicals).
CDP choline can be used by people who have to remain concentrated over long periods of time, or those who experienced a stroke or brain injury and have problems with focus and concentration.
Taking the CDP choline supplement ensures that there is enough choline in our bloodstream that our brain can use to synthesize acetylcholine and rebuild phospholipids stores in neuronal membranes depleted by ischemia.
CDP choline also affects the system in charge of neuronal membrane stabilization. It reduces the levels of arachidonic acid and helps maintain perfect balance on the micro level for our well-being.
CDP choline stimulates the production of specific neurotransmitters – dopamine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine – and with more available neurotransmitters, our cells can communicate more easily and faster. Simply put, CDP choline improves cellular communication.
CDP Choline Dosage
Before we jump right to the dosage, it is important to get one thing clear – CDP choline is water soluble. This is important to know, because being water soluble means that our bodies can absorb CDP choline, while not being able to store it for later use, which happens with fat soluble supplements. In other words, our bodies are able to absorb up to 95% of an oral dose of CDP choline.
The CDP choline supplement comes in two forms: powder add capsule. It seems that our bodies are quite capable of handling this supplement, as there are many documented cases where a high oral dose of CDP choline didn’t result in any of the known and significant side effects.
A daily cumulative dose that is considered safe, yet effective ranges anywhere from 250mg to 1000mg. It is recommended to either take CDP choline in a single dose or spread it throughout the day in two doses, which can be either 12 or 8 hours apart.
Furthermore, your daily dosages will depend on the results you want to achieve and the reason why you are using CDP choline supplementation. If you are unsure about how much to take, you can always consult your doctor. Sometimes, it is better to be on the safe side.
Experts recommend that you keep your daily doses anywhere between 500mg to 1000mg if you want to achieve the cognitive benefits of CDP choline. As a side note, since CDP choline can increase energy levels, make sure not to take it before going to bed or you might experience difficulties when trying to catch some sleep.
If you are a stroke survivor or an elderly person with memory loss, you can experience more benefits when taking larger doses, but before you do so, it is strongly advised to consult your doctor ask for their dosage recommendation.
For age-related memory impairment, doses that range from 1000mg to 2000mg of CDP choline per day have shown beneficial effects. CDP choline can improve verbal memory in this case, and can also be used to improve cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The recommended daily dose for these patients is 1000 mg of CDP choline.
Our bodies are able to absorb up to 95% of an oral dose of CDP choline
CDP Choline Stacking
Many people to stack nootropics because this is an excellent way to increase and prolong their beneficial effects. CDP choline is commonly stacked with Piracetam, or Nootropyl. Piracetam is a very popular nootropic with powerful benefits and can significantly enhance cognitive functions.
The question you might ask is: “Why use these two in combination when they have similar effects?” Well, it is true, both of these nootropics supplements have approximately the same benefits, but stacking them results in experiencing more benefits, as Piracetam boosts CDP choline effects and vice versa. And, these effects are much stronger than when taking each one of these separately.
This is simply because Paracetam requires extra Acetylcholine to be present in the brain to provide beneficial effects.
It connects to the Acetylcholine receptors and increases the activity of this neurotransmitter, but since we have a limited amount of Acetylcholine, Paracetam can’t reach its full potential.
This is where CDP choline comes into play – it increases Acetylcholine production, thus enhancing the effect of Paracetam.
The effects of this powerful synergy are:
• Increased memory• Better learning capacity• Enhanced sensory perception• Better focus• Increased attention• Better concentration• Increased levels of mental energy
• Increased motivation
CDP Choline Side Effects
At the time of this writing, the FDA has still not approved CDP choline as a drug that can be used to treat or prevent any conditions, so CDP choline remains available as a health supplement. As we have mentioned earlier, our bodies have the ability to tolerate CD choline quite well, so the risk of unwanted side effects is low, but you should still take proper and advised dosages.
The side effects of CDP choline are very rare and they are very mild at most. Here are the side effects linked with CDP choline intake:
• Headaches• Nausea• Fatigue• Nervousness• Problems with the gastrointestinal tract• Diarrhea• Dizziness
• Drop in blood pressure (in extremely rare cases)
There are no studies that provide any evidence on the effects of CDP choline during the nursing period or pregnancy. This is why you should avoid taking this supplement in either of these cases, just to be on the safe side.
That being said, CDP choline is labeled as a supplement with a safe toxicity index, and should be considered safe to use by old and young people a, as there is no evidence that supports the opposite claim. It has been used for decades now as a supplement that can improve attention, memory and concentration.
Where to Buy Cdp Choline
When you decide to purchase CDP choline, you have several options. Since it is a dietary supplement, it can usually be found on the shelves of better supplied store. If you are looking for a more convenient way, you can buy CDP choline online from the comfort of your own home. It is important to know that not all online vendors offer a product of the same quality and pureness.
This is why you should stick with the most reputable online shops when you are buying a dietary supplement. After all, this is your health we are talking about. You can also purchase CDP Choline Capsules or CDP Choline Powder on Amazon.
Buy from Double Wood
Buy from Purisure
CDP choline is a powerful nootropic with a range of powerful benefits for our health and cognitive functions. It can be safely used by both young and old people who experience problems with memory or want to improve their focus and enhance their attention and concentration.
This supplement is also known to provide benefits for patients with Alzheimer’s disease and people who have suffered from ischemia. With very mild and extremely rare side effects, CDP choline is one of the most popular nootropics.
- CDP Choline
Citicoline Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 14, 2020.
Scientific Name(s): Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine, Cytidine diphosphate-choline
Common Name(s): CDP-choline, Citicoline
There is mounting evidence for choline's place in therapy for stroke, brain and spinal cord injury, cognitive deficits, and glaucoma; however, results in clinical trials have been inconsistent.
Oral dosages of 250 to 2,000 mg daily have been evaluated in adolescents and adults in clinical trials. Lower doses (100 mg twice daily) have been used in short-term trials (6 weeks) with combination therapy in patients with major depressive disorder.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking at dosages above those usually taken nutritionally.
Citicoline was well tolerated in clinical trials. Adverse effects may include GI disturbances, transient headaches, hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia, and restlessness.
Citicoline is found in all animal and plant cell membranes. It is available commercially in its free-base form or as a sodium salt.1
Citicoline is widely available internationally as a supplement, which was originally developed in Japan for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. Use of citicoline has been extended to include treatment of chronic conditions, although further research is needed.2
Citicoline is a phospholipid composed of ribose, pyrophosphate, cytosine, and choline. It is water-soluble and highly bioavailable.3 Citicoline is produced endogenously as an intermediate in the production of phosphatidylcholine from choline and is then hydrolyzed in the small intestine to make choline and cytidine available for further biosynthesis.4
Uses and Pharmacology
Supplementation with citicoline increases choline stores available for other biosynthetic pathways.
Citicoline appears to decrease glutamate levels in the brain and increase adenosine triphosphate, which in turn offers protection against ischemic neurotoxicity.
Increased glucose metabolism in the brain and cerebral blood flow has also been demonstrated, as well as increased availability of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.4, 5
Studies have investigated a role for citicoline in substance addiction and among patients with bipolar disorder.
25, 26 A 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 130) in adults with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence reported a significant early treatment effect in favor of citicoline (500 mg/day titrated up every 2 weeks to 2,000 mg/day by week 6) compared to placebo.34
Accelerated resynthesis of phospholipids and subsequent protection of cell membranes in the presence of citicoline have been suggested as a possible mechanism of action, animal studies. Labeled phospholipid from radioactively labeled citicoline has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier.
Studies in rats with cognitive impairment have been conducted, and improved memory and learning have been demonstrated in older rats and those with induced memory deficits. Citicoline has also demonstrated enhanced learning ability in dogs.
2, 6, 7 Limited animal studies suggest that citicoline may counteract the deposition of beta-amyloid involved in Alzheimer disease.6
A Cochrane meta-analysis of clinical trials up to 2004 found some evidence of supplemental citicoline's positive effect on memory and behavior in the short- to medium-term versus placebo. Effect size for memory measures (N = 884) was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.
32), and for the measure of positive Global Clinical Impression (N = 217), an odds ratio (OR) of 8.89 was found (95% CI, 5.19 to 15.22).2 The report further suggests that the effect of citicoline (oral or intravenous) on memory in the included studies did not appear to depend on the pathogenesis of the cerebral disorder.
Trials included in the meta-analysis enrolled participants with mild to moderate dementia and Alzheimer disease, as well as those with cerebrovascular disorders.2, 8, 9 An open-label IDEALE study in Italy administered citicoline 1 g daily in 2 divided doses over 9 months to 265 patients with mild age-related vascular cognitive impairment.
Mini-Mental State Examination scores remained essentially unchanged over time for the treatment arm, while a decline was evident in the control patients.10 Another open-label, parallel study of citicoline versus usual treatment was conducted in 347 poststroke patients in Spain.
Improved cognitive outcomes were reported for the citicoline-treated group in attention, temporal orientation, and functional outcome measures.11
Depression scores improved significantly at 2, 4, and 6 weeks from baseline in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder who received 6 weeks of citicoline (100 mg every 12 hours) in combination with citalopram (20 mg/day × 7 days, then 40 mg/day) compared to citalopram alone (P
5 Citicoline (CDP-Choline) Benefits + Dosage & Side Effects
Citicoline is praised for cognition-enhancing properties among the young and elderly a. Clinical studies confirmed some of its promoted benefits, revealed other unexpected perks, but also pointed to significant limitations. Read on for an ultimate breakdown of citicoline benefits, dosage, and safety profile.
What is Citicoline?
Citicoline (cytidine-5-diphosphocholine, CDP-choline) is crucial for the production of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine. These molecules build cell membranes and protective nerve coatings in the body .
Citicoline is a more complex molecule than regular choline, or even alpha-GPC, but it’s identical to what your brain naturally makes. To avoid confusion, scientists decided to call it “citicoline” when given as a therapy and “CDP-choline” when it’s produced in the body .
Once ingested, it releases two compounds: cytidine and choline. After they pass the blood-brain barrier, neurons in the brain use them to make citicoline and other phospholipids .
Choline boosts acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters that keep the nervous system running smoothly. The body transforms citicoline into a number of other beneficial compounds. For this reason, citicoline may have more benefits and a better side-effects profile than regular choline [4, 5, 3].
- Boosts cognition
- Prevents brain damage
- May help with depression and drug addiction
- Supports stroke recovery
- Improves eyesight
- Most benefits lack stronger clinical evidence
- Long-term use may put a strain on the kidneys
- Not suitable for children and pregnant women
How It Works
Citicoline increases the production of neurotransmitters and cellular building blocks. Besides acetylcholine, it also boosts norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain [4, 6].
It can enhance brain blood flow and stimulate mitochondria to produce more energy [4, 5, 2].
Sufficient levels of CDP-choline preserve phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, which build the protective nerve sheet called myelin. Citicoline also inhibits the inflammatory enzyme phospholipase A2 and boosts the master antioxidant glutathione [7, 8].
All in all, citicoline works by balancing neurotransmitters and protecting the nervous system from oxidative and age-related damage [9, 10, 1].
The body makes citicoline from cytidine and choline. The best way to increase the levels of citicoline through food is to consume enough food sources that provide both.
Choline-rich foods include [11, 12]:
- Organ meats (liver)
- Whole grains
Cytidine, an RNA nucleoside, is most concentrated in meat (especially organ meats); it’s also found in colostrum [13, 14].
Citicoline supplements (Cognizin, Somazina) are another potential sources of additional choline, along with:
CDP-Choline vs. Alpha-GPC
Although both CDP-choline and alpha-GPC provide choline and share many health benefits, the body breaks down and uses them differently.
CDP-choline releases choline, cytidine, and other metabolites. It can also be transformed into phosphatidylcholine, which the brain uses to make acetylcholine or to build cell membranes. Alpha-GPC more directly supplies choline for the production of acetylcholine .
In turn, CDP-choline has a broader range of potential benefits, but alpha-GPC may have an edge in boosting physical and mental performance [16, 17].
Age-Related Cognitive Decline
Cognition tends to decline with aging, due to reduced brain blood flow or other causes. A review of 14 clinical trials concluded that CDP-choline could improve memory and behavior in people with mild to moderate cognitive impairment, including those with poor brain circulation .
According to the data from over 2,800 older patients, memory problems disappeared in 21% and improved in 45% of the cases upon receiving citicoline. This study lacked a placebo control so we should take the results with a grain of salt .
Citicoline (1,000 mg for 9 months) had beneficial effects on 350 older patients with mild cognitive impairment as it :
- Strengthened the nerve membranes
- Boosted the levels of noradrenaline and dopamine
- Prevented oxidative damage
In three studies of 210 patients with dementia and poor brain circulation, CDP-choline improved memory, reaction speed, and behavior. Higher citicoline dosage (2,000 mg) yielded better results [20, 21, 22].
Many use citicoline to sharpen their mind, enhance memory, and prevent cognitive decline. Let’s see what the science says about its nootropic effects…
In two clinical trials on 135 healthy adults, citicoline (250-500 mg) improved focus and mental clarity [23, 24].
A beverage with caffeine and CDP-choline (250 mg) enhanced cognition and reduced reaction times in 60 volunteers. Caffeine is a known stimulant and it ly contributed to the results .
In 24 healthy adults, higher citicoline doses (500 or 1000mg) improved a variety of cognitive markers – processing speed, working and verbal memory, executive function – but only in low cognitive performers .
In the same study, supplementation had no effects in medium performers and even slightly impaired cognition in high performers 
Marijuana abuse can impair cognition. In one study of 19 chronic marijuana smokers, citicoline (2000 mg daily for 8 weeks) reduced impulsive reactions and improved cognition. All included participants wanted to stop smoking, and the researchers thought that citicoline’s effects might help steer them in that direction [27, 28].
2) Stroke Recovery
Cut blood supply to a specific brain region can kill the neurons and inflict massive brain damage. Citicoline may help by strengthening nerve membranes and blocking free radical production [29, 30].
According to a meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials (1,300+ patients), citicoline at 2,000 mg within the first 24 h after a stroke increases the chance of complete recovery by 38% .
The data from over 4,000 stroke survivors reveal that citicoline improves the outcomes and aids in recovery; higher doses (2,000 – 4,000 mg) were more effective. The lack of placebo control in this study doesn’t allow for definite conclusions .
Two studies of over 3,000 patients found no significant benefits of CDP-choline for acute stroke [32, 33].
Drugs that dissolve blood clots remain the first choice for acute stroke. Two comprehensive reviews concluded that citicoline could provide additional benefits or help the patients who can’t receive the first-choice treatment [34, 35].
3) Vision Problems
Just it shields the nerves in the brain and spinal cord, citicoline may have the same beneficial effects on the optic nerve. It may reverse the damage of neurons in your retina and help with eye disorders such as :
- Optic neuropathy
- “Lazy eye”
Increased eye pressure and other factors can damage the optic nerve and cause glaucoma, sometimes even leading to total blindness .
In two clinical trials with 80 glaucoma patients, long-term treatment with oral citicoline repaired nerve damage, improved eyesight, and slowed down disease progression [37, 38].
Eye drops with citicoline showed the same results in another two clinical trials (68 patients) [39, 40].
Amblyopia or “lazy eye” occurs when the eye and brain don’t communicate well. It results in blurry vision in one eye .
Oral citicoline improved standard lazy eye treatment (eye patching) in three clinical trials with 190 children [42, 43, 44].
Injections with CDP-choline (1,000 mg daily) healed the optic nerve and improved vision in 10 adults with amblyopia. This study had a tiny sample and lacked a placebo control, making the results questionable .
Optic neuropathy is another form of optic nerve damage that may hinder your eyesight. In 26 patients with optic neuropathy, citicoline (1,600 mg/day for 2 months) sharpened vision by repairing nerve damage .
No valid clinical evidence supports the use of citicoline for any of the conditions in this section. Below is a summary of up-to-date animal studies, cell-based research, or low-quality clinical trials which should spark further investigation. However, you shouldn’t interpret them as supportive of any health benefit.
4) Brain Damage
Oxidative stress, autoimmune response, and environmental toxins can inflict severe brain cell damage. Citicoline protects the brain and spinal cord against these stressors by preserving the cells’ myelin sheath and boosting vital neurotransmitters.
In three clinical trials, citicoline (1,000 mg daily for 1 – 3 months) improved the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease by [47, 48, 49]:
- Enhancing mental performance
- Stimulating blood flow in the brain
- Cutting the levels of inflammatory molecules (histamine and IL1B)
However, two studies lacked placebo controls, making the results questionable.
In the third study, patients with a genetic predisposition for Alzheimer’s disease – APOE-e4 carriers – experienced greater benefits. This is an important finding as APOE-e4 carriers respond differently (often worse) to various interventions [48, 50].
Citicoline boosted the effects of Alzheimer’s disease drug treatment, slowing progression in two observational trials (over 600 patients) [51, 52].
In rats with Alzheimer’s disease, citicoline protected the nerves against protein mutations and reduced blood flow. As a result, the rats suffered less cognitive impairment, and their memory improved .
The destruction of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease causes muscle stiffness, trembling, and other symptoms.
In rats with Parkinson’s disease, citicoline relieved muscle stiffness by raising the levels of dopamine in the brain. It also boosted the effects of standard treatment [54, 55].
Inflammatory destruction of outer nerve sheet, myelin, can trigger multiple sclerosis with severe physical and cognitive impairments. In animals with multiple sclerosis, scientists observed the potential of citicoline to enhance myelin recovery and movement coordination [56, 57].
The addition of citicoline to an antidepressant drug (citalopram) improved depression symptoms and recovery in a study with 50 patients .
In rats, CDP-choline raised noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels in the brain centers for memory, emotions, and movement [59, 60].
Meth and Cocaine Addiction
Citicoline reduced depression in 60 methamphetamine (meth) addicts but didn’t impact drug use (2,000 mg/day for 3 months). In another study of 31 meth addicts, citicoline protected the brain and reduced drug use [61, 62].
In over 130 cocaine addicts with bipolar disorder, citicoline (500 – 2,000 mg for 3 months) reduced drug use but didn’t impact mood. However, it produced no effects in a trial of 20 heavy cocaine users [63, 64, 65].
A review of nine trials concluded that citicoline may provide mild benefits for substance addiction, especially cocaine, but underlined the need for stronger clinical evidence .
Citicoline boosted the effects of standard treatment in 66 patients with schizophrenia. It improved the so-called “negative” symptoms, such as blunted emotions, poor communication, and stiffness. These are especially hard to treat with conventional drugs .
In 24 healthy adults, CDP-choline enhanced cognition by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are often underactive in schizophrenia .
Side Effects & Safety
This list does not cover all possible side effects. Contact your doctor or pharmacist if you notice any other side effects. In the US, you may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch
Citicoline in Addictive Disorders: A Review of the Literature
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