- Immunomodulatory Effects of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in BALB/c Mice
- 1. Introduction
- 2.1. Mice
- 2.2. Mouse Food Preparation
- Red Sage (Dan Shen) Herb Uses and Benefits
- Therapeutic Benefits and Traditional Uses of Red Sage
- Red Sage Uses for Ailments Realted to the Heart
- Other Medicinal Applications of Red Sage
- Dosage and Administration
- Side Effects and Possible Interactions of Red Sage (Dan Shen)
- Red Sage: Salvia Miltiorrhiza
- Essential cardiovascular functions may include:
- Possible symptoms of high blood pressure may include:
- Tanshinone Health Benefits
- Common Names
- Does it work? Can danshen treat heart disease?
- Danshen Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database
- Adverse Reactions
- Uses and Pharmacology
- Danshen: Health Benefits, Uses, Side Effects, Dosage & Interactions
- Salvia Miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen)
- What is salvia miltiorrhiza?
- Salvia Miltiorrhiza benefits
- Modern pharmacological actions
- Dan Shen, Red Sage root, effective herb for cardiovascular issues, available from 1st Chinese Herbs
- Dan Shen Benefits & Information
- Herbs that Combine With Dan Shen
Immunomodulatory Effects of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in BALB/c Mice
Danshen, the root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, has unique immunomodulatory effects. Danshen is capable of anti-inflammation and antiallergy, which are immunosuppressive activities, whereas it is also able to promote immunity against cancer, viruses, and bacteria.
Most previous reports were performed with use of a purified compound or compounds of Danshen. Since there are more than twenty active compounds in Danshen, it is very difficult to predict that one compound will act the same way when it is combined with other compounds.
In order to overcome this limitation, we used the crude form of Danshen to study its immunomodulatory effects in a mouse model.
The mice were fed daily diet supplements of Danshen for three months and then tested for their immunity, including leukocyte subsets in peripheral blood, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and host defenses against a Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection. Different doses of Danshen caused different immunomodulatory effects. Danshen at 0.
5% decreased serum IgE production in BALB/c mice; 1% Danshen promoted cell-mediated immunity; Danshen at 0.5 and 1% inhibited the production of oxygen free radicals in liver and spleen and NO production in liver; 2% Danshen enhanced the host resistance against LM with increased numbers of peripheral monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and decreased production of IL-1β and NO.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is defined as any healing practice other than conventional medicine .
It includes naturopathy, chiropractic, herbalism, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), yoga, acupuncture, diet-based therapies, and many other practices. The techniques in alternative medicine have been around for thousands of years.
They have been widely used and taught in eastern countries. Now, people in western countries are more willing to try alternative medicine.
Danshen belongs to the CAM category. It is the root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. It has been a TCM for at least two thousand years.
The major functions of this herb in TCM are huo xue hua yu (activating blood circulation to disperse stasis), jie du xiao zhong (removing toxic substances and promoting subsidence of swelling), and qing xin an shen (nourishing the heart to calm the mind, tranquilizing the mind by nourishing the heart) .
Traditionally, it has been utilized for treatment of irregular menses, menstrual pain, amenorrhea, precordial pain, abdominal pain, abdominal mass, body and joint pain, carbuncle, furuncle, and skin ulcer, as well as palpitations, fidgetiness, and insomnia [2, 3].
The most common modern uses of this herb are for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as angina pectoris, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke [3–5].
An extract of Danshen or Fufang Danshen (combined with other herbs) has been used as the standard therapy for cerebral infarction or other ischemic conditions in China [4, 5]. Many new therapies have used Danshen as the control in clinical trials [4, 5].
In addition to its therapeutics for cardiovascular and brain disorders, preparations of Danshen have been shown to have protective effects for liver [3, 6–9], kidney [3, 6, 10, 11], and lung  in various experimental models.
Although the mechanisms have not been fully delineated, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the therapeutic or protective capabilities of Danshen. For example, it has been suggested that Danshen has an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to lower blood pressure, and dilate arteries [12, 13].
Therefore, it can decrease the risk of having a stroke and improve ischemic conditions. It has also been suggested that Danshen has anticoagulant capacity, which is beneficial for preventing thrombosis.
Un other anticoagulant drugs, Danshen’s anticoagulation is unique in that it increases the proteolysis of fibrinogen  and inhibits platelet aggregation , which are suggested to be mediated through stabilizing intracellular calcium and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and thromboxane A2 production [15, 16].
Studies of Danshen have also demonstrated that it has antioxidant effects [6–8, 17–22] and anti-inflammatory activities [9, 23–29].
Danshen can induce arterial dilation, clot dissolution and help blood reperfusion; however, oxygen reflowing to the ischemic tissues causes oxidative stress to those tissues since their mitochondrial and cellular enzymes are not fully functional. It is believed that Danshen’s antioxidant action lessens the associated problems.
Danshen is reported to activate antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione perioxidase, and glutathione S-transferase [8, 9, 17, 21, 22], scavenge oxygen free radicals [18–20, 30, 31], reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation [6, 7, 9, 21], and prevent intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion . In addition, Liu et al. (2007) reported that Danshen can prevent oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis dependent on a PI3K/Akt/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway . Danshen’s anti-inflammation activity contributes to its protective effect on organs or cells from excessive inflammation under various pathological conditions. Using in vitro and in vivo LPS-induced inflammation models, Danshen inhibits release of early (TNF-α, IL-1β) and late (High Mobility Group Box 1, HMGB 1) proinflammatory cytokines [9, 23, 24, 28, 29]. The inhibitory effect could involve NIK-IKK, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK dependent pathways . In vitro data also suggested that Danshen’s anti-inflammation effect was related to the inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis, which was mediated through impeding F-actin polymerization, filopodia formation, and negative regulation of PI3K signaling pathway [26, 27].
Since Danshen is chemically complex, in that more than twenty active compounds have been identified [4, 33], and there are no known agonistic or antagonistic interactions amongst those compounds, we believe it is useful to begin testing of Danshen in its crude form, in that it is the rather crude form of Danshen that is closer to its TCM usage. Thus, we have evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of Danshen powder as a supplement to the daily diet of BALB/c mice. After 3-month feeding, we tested the toxicity of Danshen and various immunological responses of the mice, including the host defenses of the mice against a Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection. LM is a well-defined intracellular pathogen, and innate and adaptive immunity combine to combat this infection [34–36]. We found that different doses of Danshen showed different immunomodulatory effects. Mice ingesting Danshen at different percentages of their daily food intake had differential modulation of various immune responses. Most interesting, the Danshen-induced enhancement of bacterial resistance was correlated with increased numbers of peripheral monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and decreased the production of IL-1β and NO.
2- to 3-month-old male BALB/c mice were obtained from Taconic farms (Taconic, Germantown, NY). Mice were housed in our specified pathogen-free AAALAC-approved facility of the Wadsworth Center and were maintained on mouse chow and acidified water ad libitum. All of the studies were IACUC approved.
2.2. Mouse Food Preparation
LabDiet 5002 Certified Rodent Diet in meal form (powdered chow) was used as mouse food in this study. The powdered chow (PMI Nutrition International, Brentwood, MO) was mixed with 0, 0.
5, 1, and 2% of Danshen powder (w/w), which was purchased from Crane herb Company, Inc (Mashpee, MA). The food was placed in mouse feeding jars. The jars were cleaned and refilled with fresh food twice a week.
The commercial Danshen powder was tested for heavy metal content as well as chemical compounds. Danshen had
Red Sage (Dan Shen) Herb Uses and Benefits
Botanical Name of Red Sage: Salvia miltiorrhiza.
The plant should not be confused with poor man’s ginseng or dang shen (Codonopsis pilosula).
Other Common Names: Chinese sage, red-rooted sage, rødrotsalvie (Norwegian), Chinesischer Salbei or Rotwurzsalbei (German), Kinesisk salvie (Danish), dan shen (Chinese).
Habitat: Red sage is native to China and Japan and is cultivated for commercial use in northeast China and Mongolia.
Plant Description: Red sage is a hardy, deciduous, perennial (in cold climate) plant that belongs to the mint or deadnettle family (Lamiaceae). It can grow up to 80 to 100 cm in height and has branching stems with widely spaced opposite leaves.
The inflorescences are terminal, axillary verticillasters and covered with hairs and sticky glands. The light purple or lavender-blue flowers grow in whorls, with 2.5 cm corollas with a dark purple calyx.
The nutlets (small nuts, especially achenes) are oval to oblong and become black or dark brown when ripe.
Red sage prefers moist, sandy and well-drained soil and full or half sun. It is propagated by seeds or root division. The seeds are sown indoors in March or April and germinate in 15-20 days. The seedlings are then replanted outside after the danger of night frost is over.
Plant Parts Used: It is the root of red sage (dan shen) that is used for medicinal purposes.
Roots of high quality are supposed to be purple black on the inside.
The roots of cultivated plants from Sichuan (a province in southwest China) are often regarded to be the best and are preferred to the wild-collected roots which tend to have thinner roots.
The roots are usually dug up from November to March. The first 10 days in November are considered the best for harvesting.
Red Sage (Dan Shen) Medicinal Applications
Therapeutic Benefits and Traditional Uses of Red Sage
Active Ingredient and Substances: The main active chemical constituents found in red sage are tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone IIa, tanshinone IIb, cryptotanshinone, isotanshinone I, isotanshinone II, isocryptotashinone, miltirone, przewaquinone A, prze-watanshinquinonetanshinol I, tanshinol II, methyltanshionate, hydroxytanshinone IIb, hydroxytanshinone Ⅱa, salviol, protocatechualdehyde, protocatechuic acid and vitamin E.
Red Sage Uses for Ailments Realted to the Heart
Red Sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza) – Illustration ©The Herbal Resource
Red sage is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it has been used as a medicinal herb for more than 2000 years.
In China, extensive research has been carried out on the benefits and medicinal properties of red sage. Studies have shown that the tanshinones in the herb have a positive effect on the coronary artery of the heart resulting in diminished symptoms of angina pectoris and enhanced cardiac function.
The whole plant (rather than the isolated constituents) is sometimes used in China to help patients who are recovering from a heart attack or stroke, and studies indicate that the herb has a positive effect in that regard.
However, clinical trials in China have shown that the plant is more effective when used preventively.
Today, red sage is mostly used as an herbal remedy for ailments related to the heart and blood vessels, in a similar manner to hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna).
It is often used as a treatment for high blood pressure by opening up the arteries and improving blood flow. While the herb does not directly lower blood pressure, it relaxes the blood vessels and improves the entire body’s circulatory system, which can indirectly dampen high blood pressure.
In addition, the herb may be useful in treating osteoporosis. Studies indicate that one of the herb’s constituents can selectively block an enzyme known as Cathepsin K (CatK), which plays a big part when it comes to the breakdown of collagen in the bones of people suffering from osteoporosis.
Other Medicinal Applications of Red Sage
Traditionally, red sage has been used to lessen stress and ease anxiety which in turn has a favorable effect on angina pectoris, that is exacerbated by anxiety and stress.
It is also used for menstrual disorders, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and insomnia caused by a rapid heartbeat and tight chest.
The herb is regarded as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory and has been used as a remedy for skin conditions such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. It is also used to relieve inflammation, lessen bruising and to speed up wound healing.
Some preliminary research has shown that the herb might be useful in lowering “bad” cholesterol (LDL) and increasing the production of “good” cholesterol (HDL).
Red sage is known to inhibit bacteria such as Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus) and Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).
Dosage and Administration
As a tea (infusion): Add 1/2 or 1 teaspoon of the dried herb to one cup of boiling water, steep for 15 mins and then strain. For therapeutic reasons 1 cup, three times daily is often recommended. The tea can also be used as a gargle and mouthwash as required.
As a tincture: 30-60 drops, in water or juice three times daily.
As a fluid extract: 15-30 drops, in water or juice three times daily.
For all commercial preparations containing the herb, the manufacturer’s instructions should be followed.
Side Effects and Possible Interactions of Red Sage (Dan Shen)
For those suffering from any serious cardiovascular diseases, red sage should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.
Tinctures made from the herb can cause upset stomach and minor skin reactions. The herb should not be used during pregnancy.
Red sage has been shown to potentiate the effects of the common anticoagulation drug warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), leading to increased anticoagulation and internal bleeding complications. Therefore, the herb should not be used in conjunction with these medications.
Bensky, Dan & Andrew Gamble: Chinese Herbal Medicine. Materia Medica. Seattle, Washington, Eastland Press Inc. 1993.
Bown, Deni: The Royal Horticultural Society New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. London, Dorling Kindersley 2002.
Foster, Steven & Yue Chongxi: Herbal Emissaries. Bringing Chinese Herbs to the West. Rochester, Healing Arts Press 1992.
Tierra, Michael: The Way of Chinese Herbs. New York, Pocket Books 1998.
New osteoporosis treatment uses traditional Chinese herb to prevent bone loss.
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Red Sage: Salvia Miltiorrhiza
Red Sage (Salvia Miltiorrhiza) helps maintain healthy cardiovascular functions, in combination with a low-sodium diet. The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting blood, oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. Maintaining blood pressure levels within the normal range is essential to the structure of a healthy body.*
Essential cardiovascular functions may include:
- ✅ Circulating oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
- ✅ Providing cells with nutrients.
- ✅ Regulating body temperature.
- ✅ Clotting to stop bleeding after injury.
- ✅ Transporting hormones to target cells and organs.
- ✅ Protecting the body against disease and infection.
Red Sage Root, scientifically known as Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza, also commonly known as Danshen, may contribute to the maintenance of cardiovascular health and this supplement may be used as part of a diet that helps maintain normal heart health.
Red Sage Root contains Tanshinone, which may help the body’s natural ability to support healthy levels of blood pressure and circulation in an already normal state. Maintaining blood pressure levels within a healthy range is essential to heart functions.*
Red Sage is backed by our Pure Promise and our 100% Legendary Satisfaction Guarantee. You've got nothing to lose and everything to gain. So scroll up, click ADD TO BASKET and order yours today.
Possible symptoms of high blood pressure may include:
- Difficulty breathing.
- Severe headache.
- Blood in the urine.
- Irregular heartbeat.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any particular disease.
Tanshinone Health Benefits
There have been several studies conducted on Tanshinone to see if it has any beneficial effect on lowering blood pressure. To read more about these studies, we have provided a few links below:
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Does it work? Can danshen treat heart disease?
BACKGROUND:Danshen is one of the most widely used herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
In 2010, a patented Chinese product containing danshen became the first TCM herbal remedy to successfully pass Phase II clinical trials under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US.
The company is also seeking approval for its product through the equivalent European Medicines Agency (EMEA).
The product will now advance to Phase III clinical trials, which could see it become the first TCM herbal product approved as a drug in the US and Europe.
Danshen is the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, also called Chinese sage. In TCM, it is viewed as a key ingredient in herbal mixtures used to improve blood and urine flow.
The term danshen can be used for remedies containing only Salvia miltiorrhiza, or for those containing several herbs. The TCM product being evaluated by the FDA is called Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (or Cardiotonic Pill).
As the name suggests, it is primarily used for heart problems. The product also contains notoginseng (similar to regular ginseng), ginger, borneol and other spices.
EVIDENCE FROM STUDIES
Since the 1970s, danshen has been investigated in numerous studies, almost all of which were published in Chinese. The Cochrane Collaboration now has a Chinese Centre which is conducting systematic reviews to make the results of Chinese trials available internationally.
The first Cochrane review of danshen examined its effectiveness when given shortly after a heart attack. It identified six controlled studies, but only one of these was randomised. This study found no statistical differences between danshen and placebo.
In the other five studies, danshen did perform better than the control group. However, the Chinese authors noted that many of these studies were poorly conducted and reported.
Another systematic review published in 2011 found some evidence of benefit for angina, but similarly found trial quality to be a major problem.
Study quality has been an ongoing problem with danshen research. Other Chinese authors examined 150 danshen studies, 52 of them using the Cardiotonic Pill.
The authors rated only 10 of the 150 studies as being of high quality, with the average score being 1.9 5. Also, while the number of trials has increased, their quality has not improved over the past 10 years.
In addition, only 6 per cent of the trials had ethics approval or obtained informed consent from patients.
Such issues are why the proposed Phase III trials of Cardiotonic Pill are crucial. However, conducting them does not guarantee final approval and will ly take about 10 years.
Phase III trials involve large numbers of participants to confirm a drug’s effectiveness and monitor for side effects. If these studies are successful, the producer would then apply to the FDA for approval to market the product as a drug in the US.
Currently, it is classified only as an investigational new drug (the first TCM remedy to achieve such a classification).
The Cochrane review of danshen identified almost 1,000 reports of adverse effects. Some were allergic reactions, ranging from mild to anaphylactic shock.
Other effects reported include low blood pressure, dizziness and increased risk of bleeding. This has been particularly problematic in patients taking warfarin.
This blood-thinning agent is commonly taken by those with heart conditions, with danshen apparently increasing its effect.
Danshen has been studied in numerous clinical trials, but quality is an ongoing problem. This makes it difficult to be confident in the results. This is especially problematic given the seriousness of the conditions for which danshen is used. Gaining Phase II FDA approval is a major milestone, but much more research is needed before danshen is approved as an effective and safe medication.
Cardiotonic Pill is a specific mixture of herbs, and other danshen products may contain different ingredients. Until a specific product is approved by the FDA and EMEA, patients with heart conditions should continue to use only approved medications as prescribed by their doctors.
Dónal OMathúna has a PhD in pharmacy, researching herbal remedies, and an MA in bioethics, and is a senior lecturer in the School of Nursing, Dublin City University
Danshen Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database
Scientific Name(s): Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge
Common Name(s): Dan shen, Danshen, Radix, Tan-shen, Tanshen
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Dec 23, 2019.
Danshen has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine as a single herb and in multiherb formulations. Limited clinical studies have shown efficacy in coronary artery disease and acute ischemic stroke, but the quality of methodology limits the validity and extrapolation of these findings.
Active components in commercially available preparations of danshen vary greatly. Doses include danshen 20 mg/kg capsules. Dosages of danshen root extract 5 g twice daily for 60 days have been used in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease.
Avoid use. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
Danshen may interfere with laboratory digoxin plasma levels and increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. It may reduce the plasma concentration and therefore pharmacologic effects of midazolam. Danshen inhibits numerous cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) enzymes in vitro.
Adverse reactions include allergy, dizziness, headache, mild GI symptoms, and reversible thrombocytopenia.
Danshen is a perennial herb found mainly on sunny hillsides and stream edges in China. It has violet-blue flowers that bloom in the summer, with oval, finely serrated leaves. The fruit is an oval brown nut.
Danshen's vivid scarlet red roots, from which many of the common names derive, are the primary medicinal part of the plant. Danshen is related to common sage, the culinary herb.
Wu 2007, Zhou 2005 A study of samples sold in Chinese markets identified 18 related Salvia species collected, used, and sold as danshen, and evaluated their folk uses, traditional functions, and chemistry.Li 2008 Although only S.
miltiorrhiza is recorded as the official species of danshen in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Salvia przewalskii Maxim is widely used in southern China. Genetic diversity and population structure of S. miltiorrhiza have been studied.Song 2010 Danshen is related to other Salvia species such as Salvia hispanica L. (chia) and Salvia officinalis (sage).
Danshen is considered one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines and has widespread use in Asian countries.
Fang 2010 The “dripping pill” is made by thermally blending the extract with excipients and then dripping the mixture into an insoluble cooling liquid until solidified droplets are formed.Zhou 2005 As a single herbal supplement, S.
miltiorrhiza has been investigated in clinical trials for its effect on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes.Qian 2012, Qian 2012, van Poppel 2015
Traditionally, danshen has been used to improve body function (eg, promote circulation, blood flow), as well as to treat hemorrhage, dysmenorrhea, miscarriage, swelling, insomnia, and hepatitis. More recent primary uses include treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions.Wang 2007, Zhou 2005
More than 50 compounds have been identified in danshen, the majority being lipophilic diterpenes, known as tanshinones, and polar phenolic compounds.
Wang 2007 Antibacterial, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects are attributed to the lipophilic compounds, of which more than 30 have been described; tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and cryptotanshinone are the major constituents.
Hydrophilic compounds from danshen consist of phenolic acids, including caffeic acid and its derivatives, such as danshensu, salvianolic acids A and B, rosmarinic acid, and prolithospermic acid.
Jiang 2005, Wang 2007 Antioxidant and anticoagulant effects may derive from these hydrophilic compounds. Other compounds include baicalin, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, flavanones, vitamin E, and tannins.Jiang 2005, Wang 2007, Zhou 2005
A study of chemical variations of 13 constituents in 74 samples of danshen collected in China has been conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.Zhong 2009 Seasonal and cultivar variation in danshen grown in Australia has also been analyzed.
Li 2009, Li 2009, Sheng 2009 A metabonomic nuclear magnetic resonance study examined primary metabolites of 3 phenotypically distinct cultivars of danshen.
Dai 2010 Analytical procedures for determination of important constituents in crude danshen have proliferated, with HPLC/diode array/mass spectral techniques the most prominent.
Chen 2011, Park 2008 Measurements of danshen compounds in body fluids have been achievedLu 2008 and several pharmacokinetic and distribution studies have been conducted on isolated constituents and their interactions with each other.Bi 2008, Chang 2010, Pan 2008, Xiaohui 2007
Uses and Pharmacology
Cryptotanshinone and danshen extract were protective against ethanol injury to rat hepatocytes.Yin 2009 Studies suggest tanshinone IIA may inhibit voluntary intake of alcohol in rats with induced alcoholism.
Cheng 2007, Xu 2005 Danshen limited the effects of experimental pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice in rats.Xiping 2009, Xiping 2009 It also protected against ischemia reperfusion injury in experimental liver transplantation in rats.
Liang 2009 In a mouse model, danshen was protective against damage associated with alcoholic liver disease.Ding 2017
Antithrombotic actions of danshen have been reported in animal experiments.Chang 1985, Dong 1996, Yu 1994, Zou 1993
In a study to examine the effects of S. miltiorrhiza on osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation, the S. miltiorrhiza fraction (methanol and ethanol isolated) with a low concentration of tanshinone IIA inhibited osteoclastogenesis.Kim 2008
The effect of S. miltiorrhiza root extract on biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease was investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=62). Only serum malonaldehyde levels were significantly decreased after 30 days of treatment (5 g twice daily) compared with baseline (P
Danshen: Health Benefits, Uses, Side Effects, Dosage & Interactions
Anonymous. Danshen in ischemic stroke. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1977;3(4):224-226. View abstract.
Bao, H. Y., Yu, H. L., and Wang, L. [Study on effect of Salvia injection in treating primary nephrotic syndrome and on endothelin and serum interleukin-2 receptor in children]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2002;22(1):28-29. View abstract.
Bao, Y. X., Wong, C. K., Leung, S. F., Chan, A. T., Li, P. W., Wong, E. L., Leung, P. C., Fung, K. P., Yin, Y. B., and Lam, C. W. Clinical studies of immunomodulatory activities of Yunzhi-Danshen in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(8):771-776. View abstract.
Cai, D. G. Advances in the study of chemical constituents of Danshen. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 1991;16:376-377.
Cao, P., Feng, R., and Feng, Z. Observation of Compound Dan Shen injection and snake venom for cerebral infarction. Chinese Traditional Medicine of Guangxi 1994;17(4):3-4, 8.
Chan, K., Chui, S. H., Wong, D. Y., Ha, W. Y., Chan, C. L., and Wong, R. N. Protective effects of Danshensu from the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) against homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Life Sci 11-12-2004;75(26):3157-3171. View abstract.
Chang, H. M., Chui, K. Y., Tan, F. W., Yang, Y., Zhong, Z. P., Lee, C. M., Sham, H. L., and Wong, H. N. Structure-activity relationship of miltirone, an active central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). J Med Chem 1991;34(5):1675-1692. View abstract.
Chang, P. N., Mao, J. C., Huang, S. H., Ning, L., Wang, Z. J., On, T., Duan, W., and Zhu, Y. Z. Analysis of cardioprotective effects using purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract on isolated rat hearts. J Pharmacol Sci 2006;101(3):245-249. View abstract.
Colombo, G., Agabio, R., Lobina, C., Reali, R., Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E., and Gessa, G. L. Salvia miltiorrhiza extract inhibits alcohol absorption, preference, and discrimination in sP rats. Alcohol 1999;18(1):65-70. View abstract.
Colombo, G., Serra, S., Vacca, G., Orru, A., Maccioni, P., Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E., Riva, A., Gessa, G. L., and Carai, M. A. Identification of miltirone as active ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza responsible for the reducing effect of root extracts on alcohol intake in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30(5):754-762. View abstract.
Don, M. J., Shen, C. C., Syu, W. J., Ding, Y. H., and Sun, C. M. Cytotoxic and aromatic constituents from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Phytochemistry 2006;67(5):497-503. View abstract.
Dong, Z. T. and Jiang, W. D. Effect of danshensu on isolated swine coronary artery perfusion preparation. YaoxueXuebao 1982;17:226-228.
Guo, Z. X., Jia, W., Gao, W. Y., Xu, Z. H., Zhao, L. B., and Xiao, P. G. Clinical investigation of composite Danshen Dripping Pill for the treatment of angina pectoris. Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu 2003;1:124-128.
Han, Y., Wang, Z. K., and Wang, Z. D. [Observation on therapeutic effect of compound salvia drop-pill in treating vasovagol syncope]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2004;24(5):452-454. View abstract.
Hao, H., Wang, G., Cui, N., Li, J., Xie, L., and Ding, Z. Pharmacokinetics, absorption and tissue distribution of tanshinone IIA solid dispersion. Planta Med 2006;72(14):1311-1317. View abstract.
Hsieh, T. C. and Wu, J. M. Differential control of growth, cell cycle progression, and gene expression in human estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells by extracts derived from polysaccharopeptide I'm-Yunity and Danshen and their combination. Int J Oncol 2006;29(5):1215-1222. View abstract.
Hu, J. and Ren, L. [Experimental study of the effect of danshen on the viability of burned skin]. Zhongguo Xiu.Fu Chong.Jian.Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 1998;12(4):205-208. View abstract.
Hung, H. H., Chen, Y. L., Lin, S. J., Yang, S. P., Shih, C. C., Shiao, M. S., and Chang, C. H. A salvianolic acid B-rich fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza induces neointimal cell apoptosis in rabbit angioplasty model. Histol.Histopathol. 2001;16(1):175-183. View abstract.
Jin, D. Z., Yin, L. L., Ji, X. Q., and Zhu, X. Z. Cryptotanshinone inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme activity but not its expression. Eur J Pharmacol 11-7-2006;549(1-3):166-172. View abstract.
Kang, B. Y., Chung, S. W., Kim, S. H., Ryu, S. Y., and Kim, T. S. Inhibition of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma production in immune cells by tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Immunopharmacology 2000;49(3):355-361. View abstract.
Salvia Miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen)
Salvia Miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herb that is commonly used by TCM practitioners. To this date, this herb has more than 2000-year history of mature application. And it is also one of important commodities in the international medicine market.
In China it is better known as Dan Shen, which was initially documented and classified as top grade herbs in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Divine Farmer’s Materia Medica), one of the classics and oldest works on Chinese Herbalism.
As a matter of fact, there are tons of herbs that are named after “Shen” in Chinese. But it is so wrong to think that they are the same thing and it is dangerous to abuse them for the sake of treatment or simply supplementing.
For example, Dan Shen (Salvia), Ren Shen (Ginseng), and Dang Shen (Codonopsis) are so different if viewed from the perspectives of ingredients, pharmacology, and efficacy.
What is salvia miltiorrhiza?
This herb has a few different common names, among which the most common ones are Chinese sage, Radix Salviae miltiorrhiza, red sage, danshen, and Tan Shen. Medicinally it mainly means the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, in the family Labiatae.
But some other congeneric plants in different regions are also used for medicine, including Salvia bowleyana Dunn, Salvia przewalskii Maxim., Salvia przewalskii Maxim. var. mandarinorum（Diels）Stib., Salvia yunnanensis C. H. Wright, Salvia kiaometiensis Levl., f. pubescens Stib.
, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge var. alba C. Y. Wu et H. W. Li, mss., Salvia digitaloides Diels, S. trijuga Diels, and S. plectranthoides Girff. It is reported that there are more than 100 medicines salvia.
Given the fact that the wild resources of wild salvia is dwindling, it fails to meet the clinical needs. Thankfully, so far the cultivation technology has developed rapidly and cultivated salvia miltiorrhiza becomes a good alternative source.
However, conventional wisdom tends to believe that wild ones are better than cultivated ones on quality. The medicinal root is usually dug in spring and autumn. Next remove the dirt and then dry them in the sun.
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a perennial herb, 30 to 100cm high. The whole plant is covered with dense yellowish pubescence and glandular hairs. Roots are long, thin, cylindrical, and covered with earthy red skin. Stems have four prisms and branch on upper part. Leaves are opposite and with odd pinnate.
Small leaves are from ovate to broadly ovate and both surfaces are covered densely with white pubescence. It blooms in summer. The inflorescence is terminal and axillary verticillaster, with 3 to 10 flower each round and an alienated raceme arranged by many rounds of flowers.
Nutlets are oblong, dark brown or black when ripe, and wrapped in persistent calyx.
Main chemical constituents are fat-soluble and water-soluble ingredients.
Fat-soluble ingredients include tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone Ⅱ A, tanshinone Ⅱ B, tanshinone Ⅲ, cryptotanshinone, hydroxytanshinone ⅡA, methyl tanshinonate, przewaquinone A, Prze-watanshinquinone B, Miltirone, tanshinol I, tanshinol Ⅱ, Salviol, Tanshialdehyde, and more. Water-soluble ingredients include tanshinol, sal-vianic acid A, B, C, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, and so on.
Salvia Miltiorrhiza benefits
Thanks to its possible health benefits, now Salvia Miltiorrhiza has an even expanded medicinal uses, including fat loss, bodybuilding, acne, anxiety, ischemic diseases acute ischaemic stroke, high blood pressure (hypertension), cancer, cholesterol, depression, diabetes, glaucoma, sleeping problem, fertility, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, fibroids, and so on. And it can be consumed also in forms decoction, extract, capsule, essential oil, tincture, tea, and compound.
Modern pharmacological actions
1. It expands coronary artery, increases coronary blood flow, improves myocardial ischemia, promotes the recovery from myocardial ischemia or injury, and reduces myocardial infarct;2. It improves hypoxia and protects hypoxic cardiomyocyte;3. It improves microcirculation and promotes blood flow;4.
It dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure;5. It improves blood rheology, reduces blood viscosity, inhibits platelet and coagulation function, activates the fibrinolysis, and resists the thrombosis;6. It protects the red cell membrane, regulated blood lipids, and inhibits the formation of atherosclerotic plaque;7.
It protects the liver cell from damage and promotes the regeneration of liver cell, and resists the liver fibrosis;8. It promotes the healing of broken bones and the skin incision;9. It protects the gastric mucosa and fights against the ulcer;10. It calms and eases the pain of the central nervous;11.
It improves renal function and protects the ischemic renal injury;12. It fights inflammation and allergies;
13. It inhibits, at different levels, staphylococcus aureus, a variety of bacillus, some dermatophytes, leptospirosis, and so on.
Dan Shen, Red Sage root, effective herb for cardiovascular issues, available from 1st Chinese Herbs
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Common Name: Red Sage Root
Botanical Name: Salvia Miltiorrhiza Radix
Chinese / Pin Yin Name: Dan Shen
Dosage: Follow your doctor's advice for how to use this herb.
Precautions: Do not use if pregnant or nursing. **Avoid using if you are taking blood thinners such as Warfarin or Coumadin. Incompatible with Li Lu.** Consult your health care professional for guidance.
Dan Shen Benefits & Information
Dan Shen is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that supports healthy healing and liver function. It nourishes the blood and calms the spirits.
Properties: Slightly Cold, Bitter
Channels: Pericardium, Heart, Liver
Naturally Occurring Components: Tanshinone, cryptotanshinone, hydroxytanshinone, methyltanshinonate, miltirone, salviol, β-sitosterol
Herbs that Combine With Dan Shen
Myrrh Turmeric Red Peony Root
http://www.shen-nong.com/eng/herbal/danshen.html, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01563770, https://online.epocrates.com/u/1183060/danshen+(Salvia+miltiorrhiza), http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/30/AR2007013001133.html
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