Genes and SNPs Related to Dopamine Function

Contents
  1. Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents
  2. Thirst for excitement is hidden in your genes
  3. Genes and SNPs Related to Dopamine Function
  4. 1) Dopamine Receptor Genes
  5. Dopamine D1 Receptor gene (DRD1)
  6. Dopamine D2 Receptor gene (DRD2)
  7. Dopamine D3 Receptor gene (DRD3)
  8. 2) Dopamine Production, Breakdown, and Conversion
  9. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)
  10. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH)
  11. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT)
  12. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO)
  13. DOPA decarboxylase (DDC)
  14. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)
  15. Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB)
  16. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 4 subunits (CHRNA4)
  17. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunits (CHRNB2)
  18. Dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1)
  19. Fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20)
  20. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A or 5-HT2A)
  21. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A or 5-HT1A)
  22. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B (HTR1B)
  23. Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PRKN)
  24. Parkinsonism-associated deglycase (PARK7)
  25. Synuclein alpha (SNCA)
  26. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AGTR2)
  27. GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1)
  28. G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37)
  29. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TG2)
  30. PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)
  31. Neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (NPY2R)
  32. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT)
  33. Monooxygenase DBH- 1 (MOXD1)
  34. Adrenoceptor beta 2 (ADRB2)
  35. G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143)
  36. 4) Genes Involved with Dopamine Transport
  37. Solute carrier family 22 member 1 (SLC22A1)
  38. Solute carrier family 22 member 2 (SLC22A2)
  39. Solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3)
  40. Solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3)
  41. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)
  42. Torsin family 1 member A (TOR1A)

Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents

Genes and SNPs Related to Dopamine Function

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Thirst for excitement is hidden in your genes

Genes and SNPs Related to Dopamine Function

Sensation seeking — the urge to do exciting things — has been linked to dopamine, a chemical that carries messages in your brain.

For a new study published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, scientists analyzed genes in the dopamine system and found a group of mutations that help predict whether someone is inclined toward sensation seeking.

Sensation seeking has been linked to a range of behavior disorders, such as drug addiction. It isn't all bad, though.

“Not everyone who's high on sensation seeking becomes a drug addict. They may become an Army Ranger or an artist. It's all in how you channel it,” says Jaime Derringer, a PhD student at the University of Minnesota and the first author of the study.

She wanted to use a new technique to find out more about the genetics of sensation seeking. Most obvious connections with genes, the BRCA gene that increases the risk for breast cancer, have already been found, Derringer says.

Now new methods are letting scientists look for more subtle associations between genes and all kinds of traits, including behavior and personality.

Derringer used a kind of mutation in DNA called a single-nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP. A SNP is a change in just one “letter” of the DNA.

She started by picking eight genes with various roles related to the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has been linked to sensation seeking in other studies. She looked at group of 635 people who were part of a study on addiction.

For each one, she had genetic information on 273 SNPs known to appear in those 8 genes and a score for how much they were inclined to sensation seeking. Using that data, she was able to narrow down the 273 SNPs to 12 potentially important ones.

When she combined these 12 SNPs, they explained just under 4 percent of the difference between people in sensation seeking. This may not seem a lot, but it's “quite large for a genetic study,” Derringer says.

It's too soon to go out and start screening people for these mutations; not enough is known about how genes affect behavior. “One of the things we think is most exciting about this isn't necessarily the story about dopamine and sensation seeking,” says Derringer. “It's rather the method that we're using.

We used a sample of 635 people, which is extremely small, and we were still able to detect a significant effect. That's actually quite rare in these studies.

” She said the same method could be used to look at the link between biology and other behaviors — dopamine and cocaine dependence, for example, or serotonin and depression.

Eventually these methods could lead to tests that might help predict whether someone is ly to have problems later, and whether there should be early intervention to guide them down a healthier path.

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Story Source:

Materials provided by Association for Psychological Science. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Jaime Derringer, Robert F. Krueger, Danielle M. Dick, Scott Saccone, Richard A. Grucza, Arpana Agrawal, Peng Lin, Laura Almasy, Howard J. Edenberg, Tatiana Foroud, John I. Nurnberger, Jr., Victor M. Hesselbrock, John R. Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Bernice Porjesz, Marc A. Schuckit, Laura J. Bierut, Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Consortium. Predicting Sensation Seeking From Dopamine Genes: A Candidate-System Approach. Psychological Science, 2010; 21 (9): 1282-1290 DOI: 10.1177/0956797610380699

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101005171036.htm

Genes and SNPs Related to Dopamine Function

The brain’s dopamine system is highly complex, and is critically involved in many extremely important processes such as motivation, reward, mood, and pleasure.

Because it is so complex, there is a large number of different genes and genetic variants that can potentially affect how the dopamine system works.

Read on to learn about these important genetic factors, and how they can potentially affect the overall levels and activity of dopamine in the brain!

1) Dopamine Receptor Genes

Dopamine receptors are how the actual neurotransmitter dopamine affects the activity of cells in the brain.

The dopamine system is highly complex, and involves many different specific types of dopamine receptors. Each type is located on particular types of neurons, and has specific individual functions that vary between the different receptor types.

Each type of receptor also has specific genes that are involved in producing the receptor, which can affect how many of each type a given person has throughout their brain, as well as exactly how they function.

Dopamine D1 Receptor gene (DRD1)

This gene encodes D1 dopamine receptors, which are believed to be involved in controlling neuronal growth and behavior [1].

Dopamine D2 Receptor gene (DRD2)

This gene encodes the “D2” type of dopamine receptor.

The ‘T’ allele of the rs1800497 SNP in the DRD2 gene has been associated with relatively reduced numbers of D2 receptors [2].

According to one study, this genetic variant may also be associated with relatively lower rates of ADHD [3].

Dopamine D3 Receptor gene (DRD3)

DRD3 encodes dopamine receptors that are located in the limbic areas of the brain, which have been associated with a wide variety of cognitive, emotional, and hormonal functions [4].

2) Dopamine Production, Breakdown, and Conversion

Just as there are many different types of receptors that dopamine can bind to influence neural activity throughout the brain, there is also a large number of specific compounds involved in producing the neurotransmitter dopamine itself.

Similarly, there are a number of different genes involved in creating the various “ingredients” (metabolic precursors) and other compounds necessary for creating dopamine in the brain. Variants in these genes can influence how much dopamine an individual creates.

Relatedly, there are also many other compounds that help break down (metabolize) dopamine, which makes it inactive. Variants in the genes that help create these compounds can also have a significant effect on how much active dopamine a given person has throughout their brain.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)

The TH protein is responsible for stimulating the creation (chemical synthesis) of dopamine. Specifically, it is involved in the conversion of tyrosine into dopamine [6].

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH)

DBH is involved in converting dopamine into norepinephrine (also known as “noradrenaline”) [7].

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT)

COMT is an enzyme that breaks down (metabolizes) dopamine – especially in parts of the brain that are responsible for cognitive or executive functions (such as the prefrontal cortex) [8].

A well-studied SNP in COMT (rs4680) affects dopamine levels, and results in different personality traits. Read more about it here.

D-amino acid oxidase (DAO)

DAO contributes to the creation (synthesis) of dopamine [9].

DOPA decarboxylase (DDC)

DDC helps with the conversion of L-DOPA into dopamine. It is part of the pathway that produces dopamine and serotonin [10].

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)

MAOA is an enzyme that breaks down dopamine [11].

Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB)

MAOB is an enzyme that breaks down dopamine [11].

Cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 4 subunits (CHRNA4)

CHRNA4 encodes a protein that is involved in the control of dopamine synthesis [12].

Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunits (CHRNB2)

CHRNB2 encodes a protein that is involved in the positive control of dopamine synthesis [13].

Dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1)

DTNBP1 encodes a protein that is involved in the control of dopamine synthesis [14].

Fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20)

FGF20 encodes a protein that is involved in the process of dopamine synthesis [15].

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A or 5-HT2A)

HTR2A, a serotonin receptor, is involved in the process of dopamine synthesis [16].

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A or 5-HT1A)

HTR1A is believed to play a role in stimulating the release of dopamine throughout the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Some researchers have proposed that this gene may be involved in the development of certain psychiatric or neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease [17].

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B (HTR1B)

HTR1B is a protein that is believed to be involved in inhibiting the release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex [18].

Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PRKN)

PRKN is involved in the creation of dopamine, as well as its breakdown (metabolism). It may also play a role in how cells absorb (uptake) dopamine, as well as how they release (secrete) it [19].

Parkinsonism-associated deglycase (PARK7)

PARK7 is believed to be involved in stimulating the creation (synthesis) of dopamine [20].

Synuclein alpha (SNCA)

SNCA is believed to be responsible for inhibiting the cellular uptake and release of dopamine [21].

Angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AGTR2)

AGTR2 is believed to be involved in the creation of dopamine [22].

GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1)

GCH1 is also believed to be involved in the creation of dopamine [23].

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37)

GPR37 is believed to affect the activity of the dopamine transporter, the molecule that helps cells absorb (uptake) dopamine from the synapse so that it can be re-used [24].

Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TG2)

TG2 is involved in the creation of dopamine [25].

PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)

PINK1 is believed to stimulate the release (secretion) of dopamine from neurons [26].

Neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (NPY2R)

NPY2R is believed to be involved in stimulating dopamine production [27].

4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT)

ABAT has been proposed to have two different roles that effectively reduce dopamine activity in the brain. Firstly, it may inhibit the release (secretion) of dopamine from neurons. Secondly, it may stimulate the break-down (metabolism) of dopamine from an active state into an inactive state [28].

Monooxygenase DBH- 1 (MOXD1)

MOXD1 is involved in breaking down dopamine [29].

Adrenoceptor beta 2 (ADRB2)

Variants in the ADRB2 gene are believed to affect how dopamine binds to its receptors throughout the brain [30].

G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143)

GPR143 is also believed to be involved in dopamine binding. It is also a receptor for tyrosine, L-DOPA, and dopamine [31].

4) Genes Involved with Dopamine Transport

After neurotransmitters are released by brain cells, they have to be brought back into the neuron so that they can be “re-used” again.

The “helper molecules” that help bring neurotransmitters back into neurons are called transporters. There are different transporter molecules for different types of neurotransmitters, and also have their own genes that help to produce them.

Genes that affect the levels and activity of these transporters can also have a significant effect on neurotransmitter levels and activity throughout the brain as a whole.

Solute carrier family 22 member 1 (SLC22A1)

SLC22A1 encodes for a protein involved in dopamine transport [32].

Solute carrier family 22 member 2 (SLC22A2)

SLC22A2 encodes for a protein involved in dopamine transport [33].

Solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3)

SLC22A3 encodes for a protein involved in dopamine transport [34].

Solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3)

SLC6A3 encodes a protein called dopamine transporter (DAT), which – as its name suggests – transports dopamine into the cell [35].

Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)

VMAT2 is a protein encoded by the SLC18A2 gene. It is involved in dopamine transport [36].

Torsin family 1 member A (TOR1A)

TOR1A controls the location of dopamine transporter SLC6A3, which is also believed to give it a (slightly indirect) role in controlling dopamine activity [22].

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/genes-snps-related-dopamine-function/

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