- Effects of resistant maltodextrin on bowel movements: a systematic review and meta-analysis
- 5+ Benefits of Resistant Maltodextrin + Safety & Side Effects
- What are Maltodextrins?
- What is Maltodextrin (Digestible)?
- What is Resistant Maltodextrin?
- Maltodextrin vs. Resistant Maltodextrin
- Mechanism of Action
- 1) Digestive Health
- 2) Diabetes
- 3) Obesity
- Insufficient Evidence For
- 4) Blood Lipids
- 5) Immune Function
- Animal Research (Lacking Evidence)
- 6) Mineral Absorption
- Cancer Research
- Side Effects & Safety
- Limitations and Caveats
- Forms and Dosage
- Further Reading
- Tolerability and Acceptability of Fibersol-2 in Children – ICH GCP – Clinical Trials Registry
- Is Fda Regulated Device
- Primary Outcome
- Overall Official
- Masking Description
- Last Update Posted
- Resistant Starches Food List, Benefits, Side Effects
- Possible Benefits of Resistant Starches
- Resistant Starches as Prebiotics
- Safety and Side Effects
- Modified Starches
- Modified Starches Uses
- Modified Starches Safety, Side Effects
- Related Nutrients
Effects of resistant maltodextrin on bowel movements: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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5+ Benefits of Resistant Maltodextrin + Safety & Side Effects
Maltodextrin usually brings to mind a processed sugar added to packaged foods. However, another form of maltodextrin is a digestion-resistant dietary fiber that may promote gut health and prevent diabetes. Read on to learn more.
What are Maltodextrins?
Maltodextrin is a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) derived from plant sources, such as rice, potato, corn or wheat .
Maltodextrin exists in either a digestible or a digestion-resistant form .
The digestible form of maltodextrin (MD) is a good source of energy, but it can increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, and other health issues [3, 4].
Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a dietary fiber that enhances gut health, improves digestion problems, and prevents diabetes and obesity [5, 6].
What is Maltodextrin (Digestible)?
The digestible maltodextrin is a common ingredient in foods and the one associated with health dangers. Although maltodextrin is a plant extract, it is highly processed. This white powder is industrially produced by breaking down starch (with enzymes or acids), followed by purification. The final product is tasteless and soluble in water [7, 8, 1, 9].
Maltodextrin is used as a food additive to [1, 10]:
- Provide a cheap source of energy in sports drinks
- Enhance texture or flavor
- Preserve packaged or canned foods
- Prevent ice growth in frozen foods
- Thicken liquids similar to gelatin
- Replace sugar or fat in low-calorie foods
It is also used as a filler or a preservative in medical or cosmetic products [1, 10].
Maltodextrin has around 4 kcal/gr and a very high glycemic index, around 100 [1, 11].
What is Resistant Maltodextrin?
Un regular maltodextrin, digestion resistant maltodextrin can be a health-enhancing substance. It is a dietary fiber produced by a chemical process that changes the bonds between the sugars, making it impossible to digest [5, 12].
You may know about Hi-Maize and raw potato starch, two other types of resistant starch. Resistant maltodextrin is another type of resistant starch (type 3, 4 or 5) [5, 13, 14].
Since resistant starch cannot be digested by the small intestine, it passes to the gut intact. Gut bacteria in the colon ferment it into vitamin K2 and beneficial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate. Resistant starch also helps good bacteria grow and stay balanced .
Resistant maltodextrin promotes digestion, bowel movements, and gut health. It has powerful effects on general wellness and its ingestion has been inversely linked to diabetes, heart diseases, obesity, and inflammatory conditions [5, 15, 16].
Resistant maltodextrin is a white powder with a neutral taste. It has a low glycemic index and around 2-2.5 kcal per gram [13, 5, 17, 18, 19].
Maltodextrin vs. Resistant Maltodextrin
Note: For simplicity, we’ll refer to the regular, digestible maltodextrin simply as “maltodextrin” in the rest of this article while digestion-resistant maltodextrin will be referred to as “resistant maltodextrin”.
It is clear that maltodextrin and resistant maltodextrin only sound similar. However, these two sugars are completely different when it comes to their benefits and risks.
The potential benefits of maltodextrin versus resistant maltodextrin include [5, 20, 21, 22, 13, 23, 1, 5, 15, 16]:
The health risks of maltodextrin versus resistant maltodextrin [24, 25, 26, 27, 1, 28]:
Mechanism of Action
Resistant maltodextrin is believed to enhance gut health by [19, 29, 30]:
- Promoting the growth of good gut bacteria
- Improving stool weight, consistency, and bowel movements
According to some researchers, resistant maltodextrin has potential against obesity, diabetes, and heart disease because, in various studies, it has [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39]:
- Reduced belly fat and body weight
- Decreased food intake
- Increased satiety hormones (glucagon- peptide-1 and peptide YY)
- Lowered the production of the “hunger” hormone (ghrelin)
- Reduced blood sugar levels and insulin resistance
- Blocked fat absorption and enhanced the elimination of dietary fats
It may also prevent cancer and enhance immune function by [40, 41, 35, 42, 43]:
- Blocking the growth of cancer cells and tumors
- Decreasing endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers (TNF-a, IFN gamma, MDA)
- Increasing protective antibodies and anti-inflammatory substances (IgA, butyrate, IL-10)
1) Digestive Health
Resistant starches can do wonders for your gut health, especially if you are prone to gut microbiome imbalances. In several clinical studies of over 900 people, resistant maltodextrin increased stool weight, stool consistency, and bowel movement frequency compared to placebo [19, 44, 45, 46, 42, 30].
In clinical studies of over 200 people, resistant maltodextrin enhanced the growth of good gut bacteria, including [19, 29, 44, 47, 48]:
In a clinical trial of 32 people with constipation, resistant maltodextrin with inulin improved bowel movements and decreased straining and incomplete emptying .
In rats, resistant maltodextrin promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium) and decreased harmful gut bacteria (Clostridium perfringens). In piglets, resistant it prevented ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disorder [50, 51].
As a resistant starch, this type of maltodextrin will help keep your blood sugar level stable after meals. In a meta-analysis of over 900 people, resistant maltodextrin blocked the increase of blood sugar after meals (postprandial glycemia) .
In a 12-week clinical study on 60 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. It increased a weight-loss protein called adiponectin that blocks glucose production. Adiponectin is also ly to be increased in people with lectin sensitivity .
In a clinical study on 55 women with type 2 diabetes, resistant maltodextrin lowered insulin resistance. In 13 people, resistant maltodextrin reduced insulin production after meals. It also reduced blood sugar levels in a 12-week clinical study on 30 people with metabolic syndrome [36, 52, 35].
In rats, RMD enhanced the GLP-1 (Glucagon–peptide 1) production, a hormone that lowers blood sugar and insulin levels [6, 53, 54].
In several clinical studies of over 300 overweight people, resistant maltodextrin reduced body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat. In one 12-week clinical study of 30 people with metabolic syndrome, it decreased waist circumference and belly fat [31, 55, 35].
In clinical studies of over 160 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin decreased feelings of hunger, increased satiety, and reduced and food intake. In another study on 32 healthy people, it decreased levels of the “hunger” hormone (ghrelin), lowered feelings of hunger and improved satiety [31, 32, 33, 34].
In rats, resistant maltodextrin reduced body weight, belly fat, and suppressed excess food intake [56, 6, 50].
Insufficient Evidence For
The following purported benefits are only supported by limited, low-quality clinical studies. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of resistant maltodextrin for any of the below-listed uses. Remember to speak with a doctor before using resistant maltodextrin for health reasons, and never use it in place of something your doctor recommends or prescribes.
4) Blood Lipids
In a 12-week clinical study of 60 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin increased HDL- cholesterol, lowered total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL- cholesterol, and triglycerides. Several other studies on both healthy people and those with metabolic syndrome confirmed its triglyceride-lowering benefits [39, 35, 52].
The same was found in rats, in which resistant maltodextrin blocked the increase of triglycerides after eating. In hamsters, RMD together with inulin increased HDL- cholesterol, reduced levels of all harmful fats, echoing the benefits observed in humans [52, 57].
5) Immune Function
In a clinical study 55 women with diabetes type 2, resistant maltodextrin decreased a wide range of harmful immune markers, including endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IFN gamma), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (a marker for oxidative stress). Resistant maltodextrin also increased IL-10 (Interleukin-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine [35, 42].
In mice, this resistant starch increased the production of IgA and butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that enhances immune function and protects the gut .
Animal Research (Lacking Evidence)
No clinical evidence supports the use of resistant maltodextrin for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.
6) Mineral Absorption
Resistant starch may aid nutrient absorption and reduce the lihood of nutrient deficiencies. Resistant maltodextrin can bring all the proven benefits of resistant starch on mineral and vitamin D levels. In rats, resistant maltodextrin improved the absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc – all essential minerals needed to maintain optimal health .
In mice, resistant maltodextrin blocked the growth of breast and colon cancer cells and increased cancer cell death. In cell studies, it suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. More research on its cancer-fighting potential is needed [40, 59, 41].
Side Effects & Safety
In human, animal, and cell studies, resistant maltodextrin was very safe .
Common side effects were very mild and included [37, 13, 24, 46]:
- Stomach pain and fullness with high doses
- Gurgling sounds
- Diarrhea or watery stools
To avoid adverse effects and unexpected interactions, talk to your doctor before using either type of maltodextrin for health reasons.
Limitations and Caveats
There are quite a few clinical trials examining the effect of resistant maltodextrin on gut health and the prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, some other health benefits are supported mainly by animal and cell studies, whereas the clinical studies only have a small number of participants.
Moreover, there is insufficient research on resistant maltodextrin health risks. More research on the risk effects and health benefits of resistant maltodextrin should be encouraged.
Forms and Dosage
There is no safe and effective dose of resistant maltodextrin because no sufficiently powered study has been conducted to find one. The dosage of resistant maltodextrin in clinical studies ranged from 9 – 60 g per day [35, 19, 52, 29, 33, 46].
The maximum dosage for men that did not cause diarrhea was 1 g/kg body weight, whereas women could take 1.1 g/kg body weight .
- What is Digestible Maltodextrin & is it Bad For You?
Tolerability and Acceptability of Fibersol-2 in Children – ICH GCP – Clinical Trials Registry
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Is Fda Regulated Device
Dietary fiber, a non-digestible carbohydrate, used in decades for the beneficial effect onhealth with physiological importance because such compounds have low energy values.
Theseindigestible carbohydrates generally reach the large intestine undigested and unabsorbed,they are often used in many functional and/or low-calorie food and beverages.
Researchershave stated that dietary fiber especially digestive-resistant maltodextrin has innumerablebeneficial effects on human health, such as improving intestinal regularity by increasingfecal bulk, stimulating peristalsis and shortening gastrointestinal transit time.
Resistantmaltodextrin (Fibersol-2) is a low viscosity, water-soluble, indigestible dextrin produced bythe treatment of corn starch with acid, enzymes, and heat. Dietary fiber, a non-digestiblecarbohydrate, has been used in decades for the beneficial effect of health with physiologicalimportance.
In developing countries most of the diarrhea episodes occur during the first twoyears of life and till date antibiotics have been found to have no role in over seventy fivepercent of young childhood diarrhea. Toddler's diarrhea which affects children aged 6 to 60months is known as chronic nonspecific diarrhea of childhood.
The stool is frequently wateryor loose and may have food particles in it. Despite the diarrhea, the child continues to growand gain weight, remains active and has a normal appetite. The beneficial effects ofresistant maltodextrin are well known in developed countries; however, data are lacking indeveloping countries. It has become imperative to know its safety, tolerability andacceptability in small children with or without diarrhea in developing countries such as inBangladesh.
To conduct an exploratory study to understand the digestive tolerability of resistantmaltodextrin (Fibersol-2) in young healthy and diarrhea children aged 1-3 years for 30children at home and 30 children at hospital in phase 1.
Additionally, propose to conduct aplacebo-controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial to examine whether Fibersol-2with water can reduce the duration of diarrhea and stool output in children of 1-3 years oldin the tertiary level hospital.
If the child vomits out within 10 minutes of oral intake, wewill give him again similar amount of fibersol-2 for consumption after an hour of rejection;if the child vomits again within 10 minutes of next intake, we will stop giving himfibersol-2 anymore. Also assess the digestive tolerability of the study children.
In additionto gathering information from hospital, field research staff will visit the households ofstudy children to collect information about their health status by administering field testedquestionnaire.Study staff members will follow-up the study participants round the clock (24 hrs) duringtheir hospital stay.
To ensure the patient care they maintain a roster duty with staffmembers consisting 2 Project Research Physicians, 4 Study Nurse, 2 Field Research Assistantsand 4 Field Organizer.
Project physician will be responsible for consenting as well as allclinical assessment including the assessment of the diarrheal patients and provide treatment,besides these they will be given treatment for other illness if needed, our study nurses areresponsible for recording vital signs and will feed the Fibersol-2 to the study participantsin front of their legal guardians at hospital and community level with appropriate dose andtime. They will also be closely monitoring the participants after oral intake of fibersol-2;if any adverse event is observed they will call the study physician immediately. FieldResearch assistant and Field Organizer will be screening the community control as well aswill record other socio-demographic information and anthropometry as required. Also assistthe study nurse in monitoring the study participants at household level.Eligibility criteria for the clinical efficacy trialInclusion criteria:(i) Children with acute watery diarrhea, 3 or more watery stool in any 24-hour period of
|Duration of diarrhea||72 hours|
|Stool consistency.||24 hrs|
A placebo-controlled, randomized; double-blind 2 arm trial
Inclusion Criteria:– Children with acute watery diarrhea, 3 or more watery stool in any 24-hour period ofExclusion Criteria:– Children with bloody diarrhea, severe diseases (severe sepsis, meningitis, severepneumonia with respiratory distress requiring intensive care and ancillary supportsuch as oxygen inhalation, orophryngeal suction etc.- Child in a situation and could interfere with the optimal participation to the studyor constitute a particular risk of non-compliance- Currently participating in another clinical trial, and- Parents refused to give written consent.
|Mohammod Jo Chisti, MMed PhD||Principal Investigator||International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh|
|Kumudini Medical College and hospital, Mirzapur, TangailDhaka 1212 Bangladesh|
Tolerability , Acceptability , Fibersol-2 , Children
Hillemeier C. An overview of the effects of dietary fiber on gastrointestinal transit. Pediatrics. 1995 Nov;96(5 Pt 2):997-9. Review.
Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
A placebo-controlled, randomized; double-blind 2 arm trial to assess the efficacy of fibersol-2 in children with acute watery diarrhea.
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Resistant Starches Food List, Benefits, Side Effects
Resistant starches (RS) resist digestion in the small intestine, so they pass unchanged to the large intestine, where beneficial colonic bacteria partially break them down (ferment) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gases. They can provide about 2.1-2.
8 kilocalories per gram (regular starch = 4.2 kcal/g) [1,2].
Resistant starches are considered “functional fiber;” they are not true fiber, but they still have properties of both soluble fiber–they are fermented by intestinal bacteria–and insoluble fiber–they absorb water and therefore increase the bulk of stool .
|RS1 Starch physically protected from digestive enzymes||Beans, lentils, wholegrain bread and other whole grains, pearly barley, brown rice, bulgur wheat, sorghum |
|RS2 Raw starch||Raw foods: unripe (green) bananas, green plantains, raw potatoes, modified (non-genetically) high-amylose corn (amylomaize) and starch produced from it: high amylose corn starch (HACS), also called high amylose maize starch (HAMS) [3,4-p.380]|
|RS3 Retrograde starch||Cooked and cooled starchy foods: bread, potato salad , pasta (noodles, spaghetti) rice, cornflakes, ready-to-eat cereals, canned red kidney beans and chickpeas ) [4-p.380]|
|RS4 “Modified food starches,” “resistant maltodextrins” or starch hydrolysates” are chemically changed starch derivatives.||Added to commercial breads, cakes, or frozen desserts to improve their texture or increase fiber content [1,4-pp.381-384]|
Chart 1. sources: [1,14], NOTE: Resistant starches added to commercial foods may be RS2, RS3 or RS4.
Possible Benefits of Resistant Starches
Resistant starches are POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE in:
Constipation. RS, in amounts about 30 g/day, can increase the bulk of stool .
Diarrhea. RS2, when added to oral rehydration solution (ORS) may shorten the duration of acute diarrhea in children [6,15,16].
Some authors recommend consuming 20 g resistant starches per day for beneficial health effects .
Resistant Starches as Prebiotics
Resistant starches may act as prebiotics: they may stimulate the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria in the colon [1,9]. The exact health benefits of prebiotics are not known yet, though.
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about the effectiveness of resistant starches in prevention or treatment of high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high glucose levels in diabetes 2 [7,8,14], gallstones, colonic cancer, weight loss, or increasing intestinal absorption of calcium and iron .
Safety and Side Effects
Ingestion of excessive amount of resistant starches may cause abdominal bloating and pain and excessive gas (flatulence) [8,14]. Resistant starches may worsen the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in some individuals .
Modified starches are obtained by treatment of starch (from corn or wheat) with heat, alkali, acids or enzymes . They are not genetically modified (non-GMO). They are used as food additives. In the human intestine, they may act as soluble or insoluble and more or less fermentable fiber .
Modified starches used as food additives [10,12]:
- Dextrin roasted starch (E1400)* is GRAS**
- Acid treated starch (E1401) is GRAS
- Alkaline treated starch (E1402)
- Bleached starch (E1403) is GRAS
- Oxidized starch (E1404)
- Enzyme-treated starch (E1405)
- Monostarch phosphate (E1410) is GRAS
- Distarch phosphate (E1412) is GRAS
- Phosphated distarch phosphate (E1413) is GRAS
- Acetylated distarch phosphate (E1414) is GRAS
- Starch acetate (E1420)
- Acetylated distarch adipate (E1422) is GRAS
- Hydroxypropyl starch (E1440) is GRAS
- Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (E1442) is GRAS
- Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (E1450) is GRAS
- Acetylated oxidized starch (E1451)
* Food additives with E numbers (in brackets) are permitted in the European Union. ** GRAS = Generally Recognized As Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration
Modified Starches Uses
Modified starches can be used as:
- Food thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and texturizers in baked goods, ice creams, jams, canned foods, confections, sauces, etc.
- Fiber supplements, for example resistant dextrin and resistant maltodextrin
- Binders in pills
Modified Starches Safety, Side Effects
All modified starches listed above, except acetylated oxidized starch, have an “Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) not specified” status by JECFA, meaning toxicity has not been found at any amount , and some are Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . Resistant dextrin, resistant maltodextrin and other soluble modified starches may cause abdominal bloating and flatulence.
- Dietary fiber
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Sajilata MG et al, 2006, Resistant starch ─ a review Wiley Online Library
- Elia M et al, 2007, Energy values of macronutrients and specific carbohydrates in foods European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Platel K et al, 1994, Resistant starch content of Indian foods PubMed
- Mitchell, H., 2006, Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology
- Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects PubMed
- Raqhupathy P et al, 2006, Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea PubMed
- Potential Health Benefits of RS2 from High Amylose Corn National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Robertson MD et al, 2005, Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Slavin J, 2013, Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits PubMed Central
- Modified starches Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
- Haub MD et al, 2010, Different Types of Resistant Starch Elicit Different Glucose Reponses in Humans Europe PubMed Central
- SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) US Food and Drug Administration
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Birt DF et al, 2013, Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health PubMed Central
- RamaKrishna BS et al, 2000, Amylase-Resistant Starch plus Oral Rehydration Solution for Cholera The New England Journal of Medicine
- A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glucose versus Amylase Resistant Starch Hypo-Osmolar Oral Rehydration Solution for Adult Acute Dehydrating Diarrhea PubMed Central