3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

Health Benefits of Saccharomyces Boulardii

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

Carlina Teteris / Getty Images

Saccharomyces boulardii is a type of yeast sourced from the skin of such plants as lychee and mangosteen. Long used in certain systems of medicine and now available in dietary supplement form, Saccharomyces boulardii is thought to aid in the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders.

Saccharomyces boulardii is considered to be a probiotic, a class of beneficial bacteria found to stimulate the immune system and protect digestive health.

In alternative medicine, Saccharomyces boulardii is said to help with the following conditions:

  • Crohn's disease
  • diarrhea
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • ulcerative colitis

While Saccharomyces boulardii is typically used as a remedy for gastrointestinal problems, some individuals also use it for acne, canker sores, high cholesterol, urinary tract infections, and yeast infections.

Here is a look at the science supporting Saccharomyces boulardii's effects on various illnesses.

Saccharomyces boulardii may aid in the treatment and/or prevention of certain gastrointestinal disorders, according to a report published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology in 2010.

 For the report, investigators analyzed 27 clinical trials testing the use of Saccharomyces boulardii for various diseases.

They found significant evidence that Saccharomyces boulardii can help prevent both traveler's diarrhea and diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics.

In addition, the report indicates that Saccharomyces boulardii shows promise in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, acute adult diarrhea, and Crohn's disease. However, the authors note that more research is needed before Saccharomyces boulardii can be recommended for these conditions.

There's also some evidence that Saccharomyces boulardii may help treat ulcerative colitis.

For instance, a pilot study published in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in 2003 found that patients with ulcerative colitis may benefit from using Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with mesalazine (an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease).

 For the study, 25 patients with a mild to moderate flare-up of ulcerative colitis took Saccharomyces boulardii three times a day for four weeks during maintenance treatment with mesalazine. Of the 24 patients who completed the study, 17 had gone into remission by the study's end.

Saccharomyces boulardii may also help treat acute diarrhea in infants, according to a 2011 study published in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.

 The study involved 186 infants hospitalized within 72 hours after the onset of acute diarrhea, each of whom received either Saccharomyces boulardii or a placebo for five days.

Among the 176 infants who completed the study, those treated with Saccharomyces boulardii had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhea (compared to members of the placebo group).

other supplements, little is known about the safety of long-term or regular use due to a lack of research.

Saccharomyces boulardii may cause certain side effects (such as gas and bloating). In addition, there's some concern that use of Saccharomyces boulardii may lead to fungemia (a condition marked by the presence of fungi in the blood).

 Older adults, infants, immunocompromised or seriously ill patients, and people with colitis, cancer, central venous catheters, and any chronic or acute condition should avoid Saccharomyces boulardii, or use it only after consulting their primary care provider.

Since Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast, people with yeast allergies are advised to avoid its use.

There is not enough scientific data to provide a recommended dose of Saccharomyces boulardii. Various doses have been used when conducting scientific research.

For example, in a study investigating traveler's diarrhea, a dose of 250-1000 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii was used daily for one month. And in a study of to see the effects on diarrhea in people taking antibiotics a dose of 250-500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii taken 2-4 times daily for up to two weeks is most commonly used. In most cases, daily doses do not exceed 1000 mg daily.

The appropriate dose for you may depend on factors including your age, gender, and medical history. Speak to your healthcare provider to get personalized advice.

Widely available for purchase online, supplements containing Saccharomyces boulardii are sold in many natural-food stores, drugstores, and stores specializing in dietary supplements.

Keep in mind that supplements haven't been tested for safety and dietary supplements are largely unregulated. In some cases, the product may deliver doses that differ from the specified amount for each herb.

In other cases, the product may be contaminated with other substances such as metals.

 Also, the safety of supplements in pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, and those with medical conditions or who are taking medications has not been established.

Due to the limited research, it's too soon to recommend Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment for any condition. It's also important to note that self-treating a condition and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences. If you're considering using it for any health purpose, make sure to consult your physician first.

Thanks for your feedback!

What are your concerns?

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus. Saccharomyces boulardii. Updated December 9, 2019.

  2. McFarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 May 14;16(18):2202-22. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i18.2202

  3. Guslandi M, Giollo P, Testoni PA. A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jun;15(6):697-8. doi:10.1097/00042737-200306000-00017

  4. Corrêa NB, Penna FJ, Lima FM, Nicoli JR, Filho LA. Treatment of acute diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii in infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Nov;53(5):497-501. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31822b7ab0

  5. Fadhel M, Patel S, Liu E, Levitt M, Asif A. Fungemia in a critically ill patient with acute cholangitis and long term probiotic use. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2019;23:23-25. doi:10.1016/j.mmcr.2018.11.003

  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Using dietary supplements wisely. Updated January 15, 2019.

Additional Reading

  • Saccharomyces boulardii. Natural Medicines Database. Professional Monograph. 2/8/2019
  • Saccharomyces boulardii. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products. Friday, March 1, 2019
  • Im E, Pothoulakis C. “Recent advances in Saccharomyces boulardii research.” Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Sep;34 Suppl 1:S62-70.
  • Kelesidis T, Pothoulakis C. “Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders.” Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar;5(2):111-25.
  • Berni Canani R, Cucchiara S, Cuomo R, Pace F, Papale F. “Saccharomyces boulardii: a summary of the evidence for gastroenterology clinical practice in adults and children.” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Jul;15(7):809-22.

Source: https://www.verywellhealth.com/the-benefits-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-89509

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fungemia: An Adverse Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic Administration

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

A probiotic can be defined as a live, nonpathogenic microbial supplement that exerts a positive influence on the health or physiology of the host [1, 2]. Probiotics consist of either bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria, or yeast. Probiotics have mainly been used for gastrointestinal and vaginal diseases [3].

The effects of probiotics are thought to be related to direct enzymatic effects or to a modulation of the endogenous flora or of the immune system [4]. Efficacy of probiotics in persons with enzymatic defects is now well accepted.

Lactase from lactic acid-producing bacteria contained in yogurt helps to digest lactose in subjects with lactose intolerance and in those with short-bowel syndrome [1].

Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses significant sucrase and some isomaltase activity but no lactase activity, and it has been proposed to improve malabsorption in patients with sucrase-isomaltase deficiency who intentionally or unintentionally consume sucrose [5].

Antibiotic-induced microbial imbalance is a common cause of diarrhea and, in severe cases, of pseudomembranous colitis. Attempts have been made to determine whether the administration of probiotics would prevent or treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Several randomized trials successfully demonstrated a reduced risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea when Lactobacillus acidophilus plus Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosum GG, Enterococcus faecium SF68 (a lactic acid-producing strain), Bifidobacterium longum (with or without Lactobacillus species), or Saccharomyces boulardii were administered concomitantly with the antibiotic [1]. A meta-analysis was recently conducted by D'Souza et al. [2] to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics for prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Nine double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were relevant for this analysis. Four of the trials used S. boulardii, and 5 used lactobacilli or E. faecium SF68. The OR for the pooled data from the 9 studies (0.37; 95% CI, 0.26–0.52) was in favor of active treatment over placebo for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a separate analysis, the yeast and the nonyeast trials showed a similar beneficial effect (OR, 0.39 and 0.34, respectively; 95% CI, 0.25–0.62 and 0.19–0.61, respectively).

In addition to these studies, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 124 patients also demonstrated that the combination of antibiotics (vancomycin and/or metronidazole) and S. boulardii more efficaciously prevented the recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated diseases than did antibiotics plus placebo (26% vs.

45%) [6]. A follow-up study performed to standardize the dose and duration of antimicrobial therapy showed that the combination of S. boulardii and high-dose vancomycin (2 g/day) reduced the frequency of recurrences, but S.

boulardii therapy had no effect when combined with low doses of vancomycin (500 mg/day) or metronidazole (1 g/day) [7].

Interestingly, S. boulardii produces a protease that can digest toxins A and B of C. difficile [8]. This proteolytic activity of S. boulardii may explain the protective effect against C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Moreover, the S. boulardii protease diminishes the ability of toxins A and B to bind to human colonic brush border membrane receptor [9].

Several studies suggest the efficacy of various species of Lactobacillus as well as of E. faecium SF68, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus, and S. boulardii for preventive or curative treatment of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea [1].

Finally, a limited number of animal studies and clinical trials of probiotics have shown some improvement in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn disease, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect for probiotics [1, 10].

Probiotics are becoming increasingly available as dietary supplements, are largely used in the diary food industry, and, in continental Europe, are regarded as medicines. S.

boulardii (Ultra-Levure [Biocodex], Ultralevura [Bristol-Myers Squibb], and Codex [Zambon Farmaceutici]) is registered in several European countries and has been proposed for the treatment of several types of diarrhea, either as prophylaxis against antibiotic-associated diarrhea or as a treatment for diarrhea in adults and children infected with C.

difficile, for diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, and for acute diarrhea in children and adults. Contraindications listed for Ultra-Levure in the French labeling are hypersensitivity or intolerance to one of the constituents and presence of a central venous catheter. The latter contraindication derives from cases of S.

boulardii fungemia predominantly reported in patients with central venous lines in place [11, 12]. The origin of the fungemia is thought to be either a digestive tract translocation or a contamination of the central venous line by the colonized hands of health care workers after the probiotic capsules have been opened [11].

Many cases of fungemia due to S. cerevisiae (well known as “baker's yeast” or “brewer's yeast”) or S. boulardii have been reported. Whether S. boulardii is different from S. cerevisiae was a matter of debate [13]; this debate is now over. Despite certain phenotypic differences, genotypic and proteomic analyses have definitively recognized S.

boulardii as a member of the species S. cerevisiae [14, 15]. S. boulardii strains as obtained in France and Italy from commercially available products exert intermediate virulence, compared with virulent and avirulent strains of S. cerevisiae [16].

In several cases, the fungemia has been related to the use of the probiotic agent in the patient immediately prior to or concomitantly with the fungemia [11, 16].

In this issue, Munoz et al. [17] add 3 new cases of S. cerevisiae fungemia to the list. The originality of this publication is the demonstration that the strains were identical in all 3 patients and, furthermore, that they were identical to the strain given orally as Ultralevura to these patients before the onset of fungemia.

The authors report an outbreak of 3 cases of S. cerevisiae fungemia over a 2-week period in an intensive care unit. The reason for the prescription of the probiotic was C. difficile-associated diarrhea. All 3 patients received S. boulardii from opened capsules of Ultralevura administered via nasogastric tubes.

Probiotic treatment was started 7 or 8 days before the fungemia occurred. The authors reviewed the records of the 41 patients without S. cerevisiae fungemia who had been hospitalized in this intensive care unit during the same period.

Only 2 of the 41 control patients had received Ultralevura, and none of the 14 patients admitted to the unit when the outbreak of infection occurred were recognized to have had positive surveillance culture results at entry into the unit. Discontinuation of the Ultralevura therapy in the unit stopped the outbreak.

The authors demonstrated, by molecular typing, that the strains isolated in the 3 cases were similar to the strains cultured from an Ultralevura capsule.

In addition to these epidemiological data, Munoz et al. [17] extensively reviewed the literature to identify previously reported cases of S. cerevisiae or S. boulardii fungemia.

The use of the probiotics was reported in nearly one-half of the 60 patients (including the 3 patients they describe), and almost all of the patients had a central venous catheter in place.

The overall mortality was 28%.

This review confirms that the most important risk factor for S. cerevisiae fungemia is the use of probiotics.

This raises the question of the risk-benefit ratio of these agents in critically ill or immunocompromised patients who are ly to develop an infection after exposure to high amounts of a pathogen with a low virulence. S.

boulardii should certainly be contraindicated for patients of fragile health, as well as for patients with a central venous catheter in place. Whether this probiotic still has a place in less severe situations needs to be reassessed.


Potential conflicts of interest. R.H. has been a consultant for Pfizer, Schering-Plough, Zeneus Pharma, and Merck Sharp and Dohme and has served on the speakers' bureau for Pfizer and Gilead. Y.N.: no conflicts.


,  ,  . Biotherapeutic agents: a neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections, , , vol.  (pg. -),  ,  . Enzyme-substitution therapy with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, , , vol.  (pg. -),  ,  , et al.

 A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease, , , vol.  (pg. -),  ,  , et al. The search for a better treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile disease: use of high-dose vancomycin combined with Saccharomyces boulardii, , , vol.  (pg. -),  ,  ,  ,  .

 Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in human colonic mucosa, , , vol.  (pg. -)Therapeutic effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on mild residual symptoms in a stable phase of Crohn's disease with special respect to chronic diarrhea—a pilot study, , , vol.  (pg. -),  ,  ,  .

 Protein fingerprinting of Saccharomyces isolates with therapeutic relevance using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis, , , vol.  (pg. -),  . The taxonomic position of Saccharomyces boulardii as evaluated by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region and the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase II gene, , , vol.

  (pg. -) (See the article by Muñoz et al. on pages 1625–34) Editorial Commentaries

Source: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/40/11/1635/445902

Review article: yeast as probiotics –Saccharomyces boulardii

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

Volume 26, Issue 6 Dr D. Czerucka, INSERM U526, 28 avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice cedex 2, France.
E‐mail: czerucka@unice.


Probiotics are defined as live micro‐organisms which confer a health benefit on the host.

Although most probiotics are bacteria, one strain of yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, has been found to be an effective probiotic in double‐blind clinical studies.

To compare the main properties that differentiates yeast from bacteria and to review the properties of S. boulardii explaining its potential benefits as a probiotic.

The PubMed and Medline databases were searched using the keywords ‘probiotics’, ‘yeast’, ‘antibiotic associated diarrhea’, ‘Saccharomyces boulardii’,‘bacterial diarrhea’ and ‘inflammatory bowel disease’ in various combinations.

Several clinical studies have been conducted with S. boulardii in the treatment and prevention of various forms of diarrhoea. Promising research perspectives have been opened in terms of maintenance treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The mechanism of S. boulardii’s action has been partially elucidated.

Saccharomyces boulardii is a strain of yeast which has been extensively studied for its probiotic effects. The clinical activity of S.

boulardii is especially relevant to antibiotic‐associated diarrhoea and recurrent Clostridium difficile intestinal infections. Experimental studies clearly demonstrate that S.

boulardii has specific probiotic properties, and recent data has opened the door for new therapeutic uses of this yeast as an ‘immunobiotic’.

The gastrointestinal (GI) microflora (‘microbiota’) is an extremely complex ecosystem that coexists in equilibrium with the host. When this equilibrium is disrupted, clinical disorders may occur. Microbiota plays a well‐established role in infectious GI diseases.

Recent research has linked intestinal microbiota disequilibrium to such GI disorders as antibiotic‐associated diarrhoea (AAD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and colon cancer. Furthermore, the microbiota has been proposed as a major regulator of the immune system outside the gut.

Attempts have been made to improve the health status of affected individuals by modulating the indigenous intestinal flora using living microbial adjuncts called ‘probiotics’.

Probiotics have been defined as viable micro‐organisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathological conditions.1 In fact, probiotics have been used for as long as people have eaten fermented foods.

In the early 20th century, the Russian immunologist Elie Metchnikoff suggested that lactobacilli ingested in yogurt could have a positive influence on the normal microbial flora of the intestinal tract.2 He hypothesized that lactobacilli were important for human health and longevity.

In recent years, the definition of a probiotic has changed, primarily because of the recognition that probiotic bacteria can influence the physiological outcomes, distant from the gut lumen.

Moreover, the activation of local mucosal protective mechanisms and the modulation of adaptative immune effector functions can influence protection levels and the degree of inflammation at all mucosal sites. These observations shifted the concept of probiotics from a narrow range of dairy isolates that fermented milk and could ‘promote health’ to the concept of ‘immunobiotics’.3

Because viable and biologically active micro‐organisms are usually required at the target site in the host, it is essential that the probiotic be able to withstand the host’s natural barriers against ingested micro‐organisms. Most probiotic micro‐organisms are bacteria.

Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (formerly Lactobacillus casei) probably have the longest history of application as probiotics because of their health benefits. Currently used commercial probiotic products include Lactobacillus ssp.

, Bifidobacterium and even a few non‐lactic acid bacteria.

Saccharomyces boulardii, a patented yeast preparation, is the only yeast probiotic that has been proven effective in double‐blind studies.

4 This yeast is used in many countries as both a preventive and therapeutic agent for diarrhoea and other GI disorders caused by the administration of antimicrobial agents. Saccharomyces boulardii possesses many properties that make it a potential probiotic agent, i.e.

it survives transit through the GI tract, its temperature optimum is 37 °C, both in vitro and in vivo, it inhibits the growth of a number of microbial pathogens. However, S.

boulardii belongs to the group of simple eukaryotic cells (such as fungi and algae) and, it thus differs from bacterial probiotics that are prokaryotes. Table 1 lists the main properties differentiating the yeast from the bacteria that account for the specificity of S. boulardii as a probiotic.

Bacteria Yeast Probiotic implication
Presence in human flora99%

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03442.x

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST062013, a potential probiotic

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

  1. 1.

    Kechagia M, Basoulis D, Konstantopoulou S, Dimitriadi D, Gyftopoulou K, Skarmoutsou N, Fakiri EM. Health benefits of probiotic- A review. ISRN Nutr. 2013. Article ID: 481651.

  2. 2.

    Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(2):437–43.

  3. 3.

    Kopp MV, Ankermann T, Härtel C. Clinical potential for the use of probiotics in the management of respiratory conditions & cold- and influenza- symptoms. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2011;3:51–8.

  4. 4.

    Chowdhury A, Hossain MN, Mostazir NJ, Fakruddin M, Billah MM, Ahmed MM. Screening of Lactobacillus spp from Buffalo yoghurts for Probiotic and Antibacterial Activity. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2012;3(8):156.

  5. 5.

    Rajkowska K, Kunicka-Styczynska A. Probiotic properties of yeasts isolated from chicken feces and kefirs. Polish J Microbiol. 2010;59(4):257–63.

  6. 6.

    Soccol CR, Vandenberghe LPS, Spier MR, Medeiros ABP, Yamaguishi CT, Lindner JDD, Pandey A, Thomaz-Soccol V. The potential of probiotics: A review. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2010;48(4):413–34.

  7. 7.

    Czerucka D, Rampal P. Experimental effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on diarrheal pathogens. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:733–9.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  8. 8.

    Branduardi P, Smeraldi C, Porro D. Metabolically engineered yeasts: ‘Potential’ industrial applications. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;15:31–40.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  9. 9.

    Nayak SK. Biology of eukaryotic probiotics. In: Liong M-T, editor. Probiotics. Berlin: Springer; 2011. p. 29–55.

  10. 10.

    Kelsesidis T, Pothoulakis C. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention & therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Ther Adv Gastroenterol. 2012;5(2):111–25.

  11. 11.

    Roostita LB, Fleet GH, Wendry SP, Apon ZM, Gemilang LU. Determination of yeasts antimicrobial activity in milk and meat products. Adv J Food Sci Technol. 2011;3(6):442–5.

  12. 12.

    Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M, Michetti P, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates intestinal immunoglobulin A response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in mice. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2762–5.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  13. 13.

    Fooks LJ, Gibson GR. Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:39–49.

  14. 14.

    Roostita LB, Fleet GH, Wendry SP, Apon ZM, Gemilang LU. Determination of Yeasts Antimicrobial Activity in Milk and Meat Products. Adv J Food Sci Technol. 2011;3(6):442–5.

  15. 15.

    Sourabh A, Kanwar SS, Sharma OP. Screening of indigenous yeast isolates obtained from traditional fermented foods of Western Himalayas for probiotic attributes. J Yeast Fungal Res. 2011;2(8):117–26.

  16. 16.

    Fakruddin M, Islam MA, Quayum MA, Ahmed MM, Chowdhury N. Characterization of stress tolerant high potential ethanol producing yeast from agro-industrial waste. Am J Biosci. 2013;1(2):24–34.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  17. 17.

    Forouhandeh H, Vahed AZ, Hejazi MS, Nahaei MR, Dibavar MA. Isolation and phenotypic Characterization of Lactobacillus species from various dairy products. Curr Res Bacteriol. 2010;3(2):84–8.

  18. 18.

    Fakruddin M, Islam MA, Quayum MA, Ahmed MM, Chowdhury N. Process optimization of bioethanol production by stress tolerant yeasts isolated from agro-industrial waste. Intl J Renew Sustain Energy. 2013;2(4):133–9.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  19. 19.

    Nowroozi J, Mirzaii M, Norouzi M. Study of Lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Iranian J Publ Health. 2004;33(2):1–7.

  20. 20.

    Fietto JLR, Araújo RS, Valadão FN, Fietto LG, Brandão RL, Neves MJ, Gomes FCO, Nicoli JR, Castro IM. Molecular and physiological comparisons between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces boulardii. Can J Microbiol. 2004;50:615–21.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  21. 21.

    Fakruddin M, Rahman MM, Ahmed MM, Hoque MM. Stress tolerant virulent strain of Cronobacter sakazakii from food. Biol Res. 2014;47:63.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  22. 22.

    Kim S, Kim H, Chae HJ. Selection of probiotic yeasts from soil, characterization and application for feed additives. Agric Chem Biotechnol. 2004;47(1):20–6.

  23. 23.

    Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sheris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am J Clin Path. 1966;45:493–6.

  24. 24.

    CLSI. Performance standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 16th Informational Supplement. (CLSI document M100-S16). 2006.

  25. 25.

    Liong MT, Shah NP. Acid and bile tolerance and cholesterol removability of lactobacilli strains. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:55–66.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  26. 26.

    Syal P, Vohra A. Probiotic potential of yasts isolated from traditional indian fermented foods. Intl J Microbiol Res. 2013;5(2):390–8.

  27. 27.

    Gupta H, Malik RK. Incidence of virulence in bacteriocin-producing enterococcal isolates. Lait. 2007;87:587–601.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  28. 28.

    Bishnoi K, Mahesh K, Vipin S, Deepika G. Microbiological assay for vitamin B. Intl Res J Pharm. 2012;3(2):74–82.

  29. 29.

    Hassan HMM. Antioxidant and immunostimulating activities of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) autolysates. World Appl Sci J. 2011;15(8):1110–9.

  30. 30.

    Li X, Yan Z, Xu J. Quantitative variation of biofilms among strains in natural populations of Candida albicans. Microbiol. 2003;149:353–62.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  31. 31.

    Ali MAE, Abdel-Fatah OM, Janson J-C, Elshafei AM. Antimicrobial potential of Saccharomyces boulardii extracts and fractions. J Appl Sci Res. 2012;8(8):4537–43.

  32. 32.

    Aween MM, Hassan Z, Muhialdin BJ, Noor HM, Eljamel YA. Evaluation on Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus Strains Isolated from Honey. Am J Appl Sci. 2012;9(6):807–17.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  33. 33.

    Sowani HM, Thorat P. Antimicrobial Activity Studies of Bactoriocin produced by Lactobacilli Isolates from Carrot Kanji. Online J Biol Sci. 2012;12(1):6–10.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  34. 34.

    Chowdhury A, Malaker R, Hossain MN, Fakruddin M, Noor R, Ahmed MM. Bacteriocin profiling of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. isolated from yoghurt. Intl J Pharma Chem. 2013;3(3):50–6.

  35. 35.

    Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from india. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2007;40(2):344–52.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  36. 36.

    Mathew S, Abraham TE. Studies on the antioxidant activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark extracts, through various in vitro models. Food Chem. 2006;94:520–8.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  37. 37.

    Fakruddin M, Mannan KSB, Mazumdar RM, Afroz H. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. BMC Complement Alt Med. 2012;12:232.

  38. 38.

    Nagai T, Inoue R, Suzuki N, Myoda T, Nagashima T. Antioxidative ability in a linoleic acid oxidation system and scavenging abilities against active oxygen species of enzymatic hydrolysates from pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Intl J Mol Med. 2005;15(2):259–63.

  39. 39.

    Kabir MG, Rahman M, Ahmed NU, Fakruddin M, Islam S, Mazumdar RM. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicity and analgesic properties of ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root. Biol Res. 2014;47:36.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  40. 40.

    Oboh G, Puntel RL, Rocha JBT. Hot papper (Capsicum annuum, Tepin and Capsicum chinese, Habanero) prevents Fe2 + -induced lipid peroxidation in brain in vitro. Food Chem. 2007;102(1):178–85.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  41. 41.

    Oyetayo VO, Adetuyi FC, Akinyosoye FA. Safety and protective effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei used as probiotic agent in vivo. Afr J Biotechnol. 2003;2(11):448–52.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  42. 42.

    Foligne B, Dewulf J, Vandekerckove P, Pignede G, Bruno P. Probiotic yeasts: Anti-inflammatory potential of various non-pathogenic strains in experimental colitis in mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(17):2134–45.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  43. 43.

    Kantachote D, Prachyakij P, Charernjiratrakul W, Ongsakul M, Duangjitcharoen Y, Chaiyasut C, Nitoda T, Kanzaki H. Characterization of the anti-yeast compound and probiotic properties of a starter Lactobacillus plantarum DW3 for possible use in fermented plant beverages. Electronic J Biotechnol. 2010;13(5):1–15.

  44. 44.

    Ren D, Li C, Qin Y, Yin R, Du S, Liu H, Zhang Y, Wang C, Rong F, Jin N. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of two potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains by in vivo tests. Anaerobe. 2015;35:22–7.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  45. 45.

    Zhu Y, Zhu J, Zhao L, Zhang M, Guo H, Ren F. Effect of oral administration of lactobacillus paracasei l9 on mouse Systemic immunity and the immune response in the intestine. Arch Biol Sci. 2016;68(2):311–8.

  46. 46.

    Boekhout T, Kurtzman CP. Principles and methods used in yeast classification, and an overview of currently accepted yeast genera. In: Wolf K, editor. Nonconventional Yeasts in Biotechnology: A Handbook. Heidelberg: Springer; 1996. p. 1–99.

  47. 47.

    Fijan S. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11:4745–67.

    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  48. 48.

    Moslehi-Jenabian S, Pedersen LL, Jespersen L. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health. Nutrients. 2010;2:449–73.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • PubMed Central
    • Google Scholar
  49. 49.

    Pennacchia C, Blaiotta G, Pepe O, Villani F. Isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different food matrices and their preliminary selection for a potential use as probiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:1919–28.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • PubMed
    • Google Scholar
  50. 50.

    Candrawati DPMA, Warmadewi DA, Bidura I. Isolation of Saccharomyces Spp from Manure of Beef Bali Cattle as a Probiotics Properties and has CMC-ase Activity to Improve Nurient Quality of Rice Bran. J Biol Chem Res. 2014;31(1):39–52.

  51. 51.

    Al Zubaidy ZA, Khidhr KO. Isolation and Identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii and its Uses as a Probiotic (in vitro). Raf J Sci. 2014;25(1):1–11.

  52. 52.

    Syal P, Vohra A. Probiotic attributes of a yeast- fungus, Geotrichum klebahnii. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2014;8(20):2037–43.

  53. 53.

    Dubash T, Gupta S, Prakash PY, Bairy I. Isolation of Yeasts from Various Food Products and Detection of Killer Toxin Activity In vitro. J Sci Res. 2010;2(2):407–11.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  54. 54.

    Chen L-S, Ma Y, Chen L-J, Zhao C-H, Maubois J-L, Jiang T-M, Li H-M, He S-H. Antioxidant activity of two yeasts and their attenuation effect on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced in vitro lipid peroxidation. Intl J Food Sci Technol. 2010;45:555–61.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  55. 55.

    Chen L-S, Ma Y, Maubois J-L, He S-H, Chen L-J, Li H-M. Screening for the potential probiotic yeast strains from raw milk to assimilate cholesterol. Dairy Sci Technol. 2010;90:537–48.

    • CAS
    • Article
    • Google Scholar
  56. 56.

    Rajkowska K, Kunicka-Styczynska A, Rygala A. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2012;50(2):230–6.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12906-017-1591-9

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

3+ Benefits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Probiotics

S. cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s or baker’s yeast, is full of nutrients and is a promising probiotic for gut health, skin health, and wound healing. Read on to learn more.

What is Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast commonly referred to as brewer or baker’s yeast. This microorganism has been instrumental to winemaking, baking, and brewing since ancient times.

The commercial product known as “nutritional yeast” contains the inactivated S. cerevisiae. This product is high in protein, fiber, and B vitamins, especially folate.

S. cerevisiae is a veterinary probiotic widely used in animal nutrition [1]. Although several S. cerevisiae strains have proven probiotic potential in humans, only the related S. boulardii is currently licensed for use as a human probiotic [1].

Folate Source

S. cerevisiae is a rich dietary source of folate [2].

S. cerevisiae was shown to increase the folate contents of rye flour-water mixtures [3].

Potential Benefits of S. cerevisiae

S. cerevisiae probiotic supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. Supplements generally lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.

Insufficient Evidence For

The following purported benefits are only supported by limited, low-quality clinical studies. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of S. cerevisiae for any of the below-listed uses. Remember to speak with a doctor before taking S. cerevisiae probiotics, and never use them in place of something your doctor recommends or prescribes.

1) Gut Health

Oral treatment with viable or heat-killed S. cerevisiae strain prevented bacterial translocation, protected intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulated immunity in mice with intestinal obstruction [4].

S. cerevisiae strengthened epithelial barrier function in a cell study [5].


In one clinical trial, S. cerevisiae reduced abdominal pain and discomfort in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [6].

In another trial, however, S. cerevisiae had no beneficial effect on IBS symptoms and wellbeing. However, it seemed to have some effect in the subgroup with constipation [7].


S. cerevisiae improved symptoms in mice with acute ulcerative colitis [8].

S. cerevisiae reduced inflammation, restored barrier function, and inhibited colitis in mice [9].

2) Skin Health

S. cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics, where it reduces oxidative stress and improves skin conditions. It was shown to enhance skin moistureand skin microrelief in volunteers [10].

3) Wound Healing

Topical treatment with a water-insoluble glucan from S. cerevisiae enhanced venous ulcer healing in humans. In a patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, this treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer [11].

Animal & Cell Research (Lacking Evidence)

No clinical evidence supports the use of S. cerevisiae for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

4) Phytate Degradation

Phytic acid (phytate) is found in many cereal grains, oilseeds, legumes, flours, and brans. It forms insoluble complexes with minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium, and lowers their bioavailability. Humans lack the enzymes for phytate complex degradation [2].

By degrading phytate, S. cerevisiae may improve the absorption of iron, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus [2, 12].

5) Mycotoxin Degradation

Agricultural products, food and animal feeds can be contaminated by mycotoxins, specific toxins produced by fungi. These toxins can lead to various diseases in humans and livestock.

Studies report that S. cerevisiae fermentation can degrade mycotoxins [2].

Furthermore, S. cerevisiae also possesses the ability to bind mycotoxins. S. cerevisiae improved weight gain and reduced genotoxicity of aflatoxin in mice fed with contaminated corn [13].

6) Infections

S. cerevisiae, when administered orally, colonized the bowel of healthy volunteers and competed with resident Candida species [14].

Vaginal administration of S. cerevisiae positively influences the course of vaginal candidiasis by accelerating the clearance of Candida [15].

Treatment with S. cerevisiae decreased proinflammatory cytokines, inhibited weight loss, and increased survival rate in mice with typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium) [16].

S. cerevisiae beta-glucan reduced microscopic lung lesions and the virus replication rate in pigs with pneumonia caused by swine influenza virus (SIV) [17].

S. cerevisiae supplementation increased antibody titers and leucocyte counts and resulted in a decline in parasitemia in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats [18].

7) Dental Health

S. cerevisiae, as monotherapy or as an adjuvant, accelerated the tissue-repair process and ameliorated periodontitis in rats [19].

8) Pregnancy

Preeclampsia is associated with an impaired antioxidant defense that results in pregnancy complications. S. cerevisiae scavenged nitric oxide radicals and decreased oxidative stress in red blood cells and alleviates stress status in blood from a preeclamptic umbilical cord [20].

9) Mucositis

Gastrointestinal mucositis is a major and serious side effect of cancer therapy. S. cerevisiae reduced oxidative stress, prevented weight loss and intestinal lesions, and maintained the integrity of the mucosal barrier in mice with mucositis [21].

Safety & Interactions

S. cerevisiae is consumed on a daily basis worldwide. Although it is generally safe, in rare cases, S. cerevisiae may cause infections [22] and allergic responses [23].

Anti-S. cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been found in many autoimmune diseases in which increased intestinal permeability occurs, including type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, and others [24, 25, 26]. High ASCA were also found in obesity [27].

To avoid any adverse effects or unexpected interactions, talk to your doctor before starting any new probiotic supplements.

Immune Interactions

In cell and animal studies, researchers have observed that S. cerevisiae:

  • May favor a Th1 response [1].
  • Increased IFN-γ [1, 17], IL-5 [1], IL-10 [1, 4, 19] and IL-12 [1].
  • Increased [1] and decreased [19] TNF-α.
  • Increased [1] and decreased IL-6 [1, 1, 9, 28].
  • Decreased IL-1α [28], IL-1β [9, 19], IL-8 [1, 28], CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL10 [28] and the neutrophil chemokine KC [9].
  • Increased IgA [1, 4], NO [17] and PPAR-γ [28].

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/s-cerevisiae/