What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

Myostatin Inhibition

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

It’s been all the rage of the muscle-building press. It’s been talked as the emerging bane of the existence 
of the World Anti-Doping Agency, as they try to keep athletes away from the sheer and ominous power
 of the approach.

While the International Olympic Committee shudders to think of all the records that will shatter, the United States Anti- Doping Agency actually went so far
 as to categorically ban drugs that utilize this approach as far back as 2008 by creating a new category.

Meanwhile, to this day, not a single such categorical drug exists in the marketplace or has yet to be approved for even the most extreme of medical conditions.

The approach I’m talking about is the inhibition of the blood sequence of amino acids called “myostatin.” 
I have written about myostatin and myostatin inhibition extensively, but it seems every time I turn around there is so much more to say about this revolutionary approach.

Myostatin is the greatest single catabolic-limiting factor of extreme muscle growth, athletic performance, and aging. In short, myostatin exists in our bodies and basically works to limit muscle growth, muscle tone, strength, and body shape.

Basically, too much myostatin and your muscle mass shrinks, your fat deposits grow, your strength disappears, and your body becomes formless. Similarly, a clinically significant reduction in blood myostatin levels may unchain the shackles that limit your potential to build muscles and develop.

Researchers are working on developing myostatin blockade, as muscle degradation is such a big part of major diseases cancer, AIDS, muscle-wasting disorders and myopathies, endocrine dyscrasias, congenital abnormalities, and collagen vascular diseases, just to name a few.

Since muscle wasting
is a hallmark of an aging physique
in the form of frailty in men and loss of tone in women, the anti-aging community has also taken notice. 
In fact, myostatin levels have been conclusively shown to increase with age.

Meanwhile, the athletic community remains transfixed on the latest developments of myostatin-inhibiting substances and techniques—as athletes look to gain this edge of seemingly limitless physical power—while governing organizations look to stop them.

Interestingly, large pharmaceutical companies continue to fail in their efforts to produce even a single viable prescriptive myostatin inhibitor for patients. Their misguided focus continues to be on blocking myostatin completely with unnatural synthetic drugs. These experimental medications have yet
to become available and, due to the fact that they are irreversible blockers, may have potentially harmful side effects. While pharmaceutical companies have thus far struggled and failed to bring myostatin-inhibiting drugs to the market, there is a host of natural, non-pharmaceutical myostatin inhibiting techniques and substances that you can tap into right now.

But the first query that might come to mind is how much natural myostatin suppression is enough to see results? When we look at muscle-loss studies, we see a good hint as to what kinds of changes in serum myostatin represent significance.

In particular, one study published in 1999 demonstrated that a plasma increase of as little as 12% in myostatin corresponded to a staggering 2.2 kilograms mean loss in lean skeletal muscle mass over 25 days.

If one allows for a bit of safe extrapolation, a myostatin decrease of as little as 12% should be enough to spur a clinically significant muscle gain.

With that as our baseline of reference, we can explore the natural possibilities, the first being weight training. Yes, weight training itself is a natural myostatin inhibitor, and it makes sense. Levels are lower after weight training because myostatin naturally down-regulates in order to offset the fact that muscle is broken down and thus must rebuild.

The key is weight training in the correct way to stimulate the suppression of myostatin. Once training is challenging enough for the muscle, the recovery phase occurs, ushered in by a drop in myostatin. This transient natural drop in myostatin repairs muscles and, when the stimulus is intense enough, results in an increase in muscle size in anticipation of another similar workload.

One study published in 2004 found that healthy male subjects engaged in intense resistance training had a 20% decrease in serum myostatin, which in turn resulted in a 30% gain in strength
and a 12% gain in muscle mass over 10 weeks of training. So in terms of muscle gain, anything that drops serum myostatin below 20% of baseline is ly to result in clinically significant muscle gains.

Dietary manipulations will also influence myostatin. The nebulous problem
is that we simply don’t know precisely how and to what extent.

In past articles
I have discussed animal studies that do point to the efficacy of short-term caloric restriction in helping to down-regulate myostatin as well efforts to “de-acidify” the body by “alkalinizing” the diet.

The current limitations of the dietary approach are simply that we don’t have the human studies to back any particular method
and lack the data to understand precisely how much one particular approach might better reduce myostatin over another.

No numbers yet exist as to which dietary approaches are best for myostatin inhibition or precisely to what percentage, if any, one approach reduces serum myostatin over another.

So if you were able to get your hands on some black-market myostatin inhibitor, what can you expect? Researchers examined the effect of a single dose of myostatin gene inhibitors on muscle and strength gains.

All animals treated with the myostatin inhibitors demonstrated an increase in body mass with an observable gross enhancement of muscles when analyzed two years later compared with controls. The enlarged muscle mass was accompanied by functional improvement demonstrated by an increase in hind limb grip strength.

There was no effect on heart mass, indicating that myostatin inhibition was selective to skeletal muscle tissue. Effects were not restricted to the injected muscles; they were also found at sites remote from directly targeted muscles. Even a single dose of myostatin inhibitors has substantial effects on mass and strength gains.

Remember the mice are not exercising, they are just sitting around eating yet they have gross muscle enhancement and increased strength.

Research on the fertile egg blastodisc brought forth the first naturally occurring, nonpharmaceutical, and now widely available myostatin inhibitor.

While research
 I published in 2006 revealed that 
fertile chicken eggs actually contain biologically active follistatin, it was my work on the first human pilot trial that looked at absorption and hormonal influences that really set the stage for the subsequent studies.

Ultimately it was all about debulking and naturally processing to create a powder by way of a high-grade handling technique that really ended up producing the very first naturally occurring, clinically tested myostatin inhibitor of
its kind, MYO-T12 (currently available from MHP as MYO-X, a breakthrough in body-transformation science). In 2009 
I published results confirming that the active ingredients in this fertile egg isolate were not only absorbed and active in the human but also resulted in average
serum myostatin temporarily dropping by an average of 46% in all study subjects over 12 hours.

In summary, the excitement around myostatin inhibition will only continue to grow as the popularity of this approach takes off. Not only will we see the ceiling of human performance raised to a new height, but we are already seeing staggering improvements in quality of life.

We may even one day soon see this approach curing disease and dramatically lengthening our existence here on earth. Certainly if/when myostatin blocking drugs ever arrive, the abuses will invariably happen.

But nothing can stop the juggernaut of the natural myostatin-inhibiting evolution that is just now in its infancy.

Source: https://www.muscleandfitness.com/flexonline/nutrition/myostatin-inhibition

Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

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A GDF11/myostatin inhibitor, GDF11 propeptide-Fc, increases skeletal muscle mass and improves muscle strength in dystrophic mdx mice

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Source: https://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13395-019-0197-y

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

Myostatin is a human growth factor that prevents excessive muscle growth, and abnormally high levels can cause the loss of muscle mass. Despite the lack of proper data, myostatin has become a hot topic among athletes and bodybuilders, who claim that inhibiting it can boost muscle growth. Read on to learn what the latest science suggests myostatin inhibition might do.

What is Myostatin?

In both humans and animals, myostatin is a hormone that acts as a sort of “brake” that tells muscles to stop growing, which helps to prevent them from getting too large.

This is important because past a certain size, adding more mass to muscles doesn’t actually make them stronger – and muscles that are too large are also more vulnerable to damage. Over-developed muscles can also get in the way of other important organs, reducing their size and impairing their functions [1, 2].

Myostatin is active during multiple stages of the life cycle. Before birth (during embryonic development), myostatin determines the total number of muscle fibers an individual will have. In adults, myostatin controls the way that existing muscle fibers grow diet, physical activity, and age [3, 4, 5].

Scientists believe that exercise directly impacts myostatin levels – especially resistance exercise that specifically focuses on increasing muscle strength [5, 6].

In humans, myostatin levels also often increase with age, which may contribute to the loss of muscle mass during aging [6].

Myostatin levels are significantly higher in patients with diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and multiple sclerosis, which all involve the significant loss of muscle mass. Therefore, inhibiting myostatin is an active area of research with the potential to help prevent the loss of muscle in these diseases [7, 8].

The FDA recently granted Orphan Drug Status to SRK-015, a myostatin inhibitor, for spinal muscular atrophy. This drug is intended to improve muscle strength and motor function in people with spinal muscular atrophy. SRK-015 is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical trials [9].

Myostatin is produced by the muscle tissue of the heart, and damage to the heart causes it to be released into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, myostatin reaches the muscles and causes them to weaken over time. As a result, patients with heart disease often also experience symptoms of muscle atrophy (muscle loss) [10].

Scientists recently suggested that knocking out the genes responsible for producing myostatin in the heart prevented heart-disease-related muscle damage in mice, suggesting that myostatin inhibition might play a role in preventing muscle damage in humans with heart disease. Clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis have not yet been carried out [10].

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do?

Below is a list of pathways myostatin inhibition may target, the available research. These findings should not be interpreted as supportive of any medical use or therapeutic benefit since no myostatin inhibitors have yet been approved as drugs anywhere in the world.

1) May Prevent Muscle Degeneration

Inhibiting myostatin might affect muscles in several different ways.

First, some evidence suggests that inhibiting myostatin can prevent muscle from weakening during long periods of inactivity. For example, myostatin inhibition reduced the loss of muscle in young mice that were prevented from using their hind legs for 21 days [11].

Secondly, scientists consider that myostatin inhibition may also prevent muscle loss that happens as a result of other diseases. For example, deleting the genes involved in producing myostatin in the hearts of mice prevented the severe muscle and weight loss caused by heart failure [11].

In mice with chronic kidney disease, inhibiting myostatin slowed the muscle loss caused by kidney disease and enhanced the growth of forearm muscles [12].

Over 20% of cancer deaths in human patients is caused by cachexia, a symptom of cancer that causes the loss of muscle and fat despite adequate nutrition.

Some studies in mouse models suggest that myostatin inhibition may prevent cancer-related muscle loss in both lung and skin cancer (melanoma).

This suggests that inhibiting myostatin should be further researched for preventing catexia-related cancer deaths in humans [13, 14, 15].

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable disease that causes the loss of muscle tissue. Myostatin inhibition has been shown to increase muscle mass in dogs and mice with DMD, suggesting that the potential of myostatin inhibitors should be investigated in human patients with DMD [7, 16].

Additionally, myostatin inhibition prevented muscle weakness and muscle loss in mice with Huntington’s Disease, an inherited genetic disorder that causes muscles to degenerate over time [17].

2) May Help Build Muscle

A case study of a human child with unusually high levels of muscle development reported that the child also had very low levels of myostatin. The authors suggested that myostatin inhibition may have been involved in the observed enhanced muscle growth, though no other similar cases have been reported [18].

A pilot study using compounds that inhibit or decrease myostatin levels suggested that 7 days of treatment increased grip strength in 6 middle-aged human subjects. The authors suggested a link between myostatin and muscle development in healthy humans, though proper clinical trials are needed to confirm their hypothesis [6].

Inhibiting myostatin in healthy adult mice increased general muscle mass and grip strength, suggesting that myostatin continues to regulate muscle size throughout adulthood [3, 19].

Similar connections have been observed in mice and cattle, where genetic mutations that impair the creation of myostatin in the body result in “double-muscled” animals that have up to 20% more muscle fibers than normal, as well as dramatically reduced levels of body fat [20, 21, 22, 23].

However, persisting concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of myostatin inhibition ( muscle imbalance and respiratory disease risk) its impact on livestock and experimental animals. Some researchers think that there are no easy and quick answers to these concerns, which need to be carefully addressed in future clinical trials [24, 25].

3) May Reduce Fat Gain

Inhibiting myostatin may reduce the accumulation of fat in the body. This effect has mostly been seen in animal studies on follistatin, a natural hormone that inhibits myostatin [26, 27, 28].

In mice, using follistatin to inhibit myostatin led to reduced fat gain, and also decreased the size of fat-storing cells (adipocytes) [29].

Some scientists think myostatin inhibition should be further researched for potentially preventing obesity and diabetes [29, 26].

Foods and Supplements that May Inhibit Myostatin

Some people claim that myostatin can be inhibited in humans by taking supplements and eating foods that are rich in nutrients that can indirectly affect myostatin activity in the body. However, this approach remains purely anecdotal and theoretical since clinical data are lacking.

Talk to your doctor before taking any supplements or making major changes to your day-to-day routine. Remember that the best way to maintain muscle mass safely is to engage in regular exercise, eat a nutrient-dense and healthy diet that contains enough protein, and get enough rest and recovery.

Creatine is one potential myostatin inhibitor. Added to resistance training, creatine can increase the growth potential of muscles by lowering myostatin. In one study on healthy 27 men, creatine prevented increases in myostatin. Some researchers believe this may add to its muscle-building potential in power athletes [30].

Another talked-about method of inhibiting myostatin is through the consumption of epicatechin, a member of the flavonoid family of chemicals that control pigmentation in plants [31].

In old mice, daily injections of epicatechin led to increased overall muscle strength. The same treatment in 6 human subjects increased their hand grip strength after just 7 days. It’s impossible to draw valid conclusions from these studies, however [6].

On the other hand, epicatechin can be found in many healthy foods, including [32, 33]:

  • green tea
  • chocolate (especially dark chocolate and raw cocoa powder)
  • blackberries
  • pomegranates
  • broad beans

Eating these foods is an easy and nutritious way to support well-being. Whether or not these foods will affect myostatin inhibition is much less certain [31].

Despite the lack of evidence, certain companies claim their workout supplements also act as myostatin inhibitors.

Some “supplements” contain follistatin, an experimental compound being studied for blocking the actions of myostatin. Human studies about the effects and safety of follistatin are lacking [34].

One workout supplement that contains follistatin is MYO-X, which uses follistatin from fertile egg yolks. MYO-X was found to increase muscle mass in 37 healthy college-age male athletes when taken at 10 to 30 grams per day [35].

Creatine and follistatin supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. Supplements generally lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.

Potential Side Effects of Inhibiting Myostatin

Despite the lack of safety data, myostatin inhibitors have become popular athletic supplements to use for purported fast muscle growth [36].

However, there are several potential downsides to myostatin inhibition in people seeking athletic enhancement.

The first concern is that no clinical trials have been carried out. Observational studies are equally lacking. We currently don’t know what the long-term effects of myostatin inhibition and various purported myostatin inhibitors in healthy people may be.

Another potential concern is that increased muscle growth will lead to an increased risk of injury due to increased stress on the muscle fibers. This may be especially true for individuals using myostatin inhibitors as workout supplements instead of as part of a medical treatment for muscular dystrophy or other disorders [37].

Other possible side effects of myostatin inhibitors include increased the chance of tendon rupture, heart failure due to inflamed cardiac muscle, and rhabdomyolysis, a breakdown of muscle fibers that often leads to kidney failure [38, 39].

The Dangers of “Gene Doping”

Aside from the fact that the athletic community views myostatin inhibition as cheating, the scientific research about its adverse effects for athletic enhancement is sparse. Various purported myostatin inhibitors could turn out to be dangerous with more research [40].

One way people think they can inhibit myostatin is through “gene doping,” where human DNA is directly altered to grow muscle more easily. This is often done in secret due to its worldwide ban, since “gene doping” may have serious health consequences we know nothing about [40].

Gene doping should be strictly avoided. It can have potentially life-threatening and unpredictable consequences.

User Experiences

The opinions expressed in this section are solely those of the users who may or may not have medical or scientific training. Their reviews do not represent the opinions of SelfHacked. SelfHacked does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment.

Do not consider user experiences as medical advice.

Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on SelfHacked.

We understand that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified healthcare provider.

While there are many different ways to use supplements and foods to influence myostatin levels, most of the user experiences on the net come from athletes who have used supplements MYO-X to enhance their muscle growth:

“Unfortunately, this product does not perform what it claims. I took this product for two months and noticed no increase in strength or muscle mass when taken every day with proper diet and workout routine.”

“I can’t stress enough that the effects of Myo-X really demand added protein/nutrition above and beyond what you may already be used to…insufficient building blocks equals little benefit, and Myo-X is helping direct more bodily resources to muscle. This is the best product for bodybuilders or those who love bodybuilding.”

“I have been taking MYO-X for more than a year. Together with regular exercise, it helps to keep my body in shape.”

“MyoX definitely takes my workouts to the next level! Remembering to take it the night before morning training is the only reason it’s not a 10!! At 47, I’m no stranger to the supplement game and saying that using MyoX over the past few years, it’s quite obvious that it’s a game changer!”

“Myo-x has 100% helped my soreness levels and I no longer have to ice my shoulder after every workout. My training volume has gone up greatly since taking it and consequently, my strength.”

“I tried it and it helped my gains a lot. Saw results a lot quicker than before and with the right diet you will see gains easy!”

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/myostatin-inhibition/

Myostatin inhibitor trials on humans

What Does Myostatin Inhibition Do? + Risks & Side Effects

As noted by the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) society, myostatin inhibitor clinical trials have begun on humans. The first trials on humans actually started in Feb, 2005.

UPDATE: MYO-029 development has been dropped as it is safe but not effective. Boosting follistatin seems to be the better pathway to proceed for more effective results ith myostatin inhibition.

This is related to my article which indicated that testing on mice indicated that myostatin drugs had four times the muscle growth effect as high doses of steroids but with less side effects.

these are pictures of a German boy that naturally has the genes for inhibiting myostatin

There was also the discovery of a superstrong american boy who also has the natural genes for hypermuscles.

“He could do the iron cross when he was 5 months old,” said his adoptive mother, Dana Hoekstra of Roosevelt Park. She was referring to a difficult gymnastics move in which a male athlete suspends himself by his arms between two hanging rings, forming the shape of a cross.

Liam has the kind of physical attributes that bodybuilders and other athletes dream about: 40 percent more muscle mass than normal, jaw-dropping strength, breathtaking quickness, a speedy metabolism and almost no body fat.

Liam can run the wind, has the agility of a cat, lifts pieces of furniture that most children his age couldn’t push across a slick floor and eats there is no tomorrow — without gaining weight.

Liam Hoekstra was hanging upside down by his feet when he performed an inverted sit-up, his shirt falling away to expose rippled abdominal muscles. It was a display of raw power one might expect to see from an Olympic gymnast. Liam is 19 months old.

The so-called myostatin blockade has generated tremendous interest in the bodybuilding community. Some nutritional supplements claim to block myostatin, but researchers have said the claims are not scientifically valid.

“If the myostatin protein is knocked out, muscles grow and rejuvenate much more quickly,” Dr. Larson said. “It has potential for great abuse in the future as the new steroid.”

[Despite being born to a troubled mother who gave him up for adoption at birth and Liam being born with a suite of medical problems not related to the muscle genes.] Liam being born four weeks early and had a small hole in his heart.

He also had eczema, enlarged kidneys, was lactose intolerant and had severe stomach reflux that made him vomit several times each day, his mother said.

Two days after he was born, Liam could stand up and support his weight if someone held his hands to provide balance.

His is one of roughly 100 known cases in the world, according to experts and medical literature.

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The clinical study details

Each site will enroll 12 patients. 4 FSHD, 4 LGMD, 4 Becker MD.

Initial toxicity studies are done. There some side effects that are consistent with monoclonal antibody therapy.

This next stage of the trial is to determine dosing at three different levels and clinical efficacy.

Patients must be genetically confirmed.

The MSTN-inhibitor drug is administered via intravenous infusion.

Initial patient visit/transfusion may or may nor require an overnight stay. New infusion every other week for six months and three more months follow-up. Two muscle biopsies are optional.

Patients should have average muscle strength grade of 3. As general rule patient should be able to walk 30 feet unaided except for use of orthotic braces e.g. AFOs.

Phase I and phase II clinical trials are under way.

In Phase I clinical trials, researchers test a new drug or treatment in a small group of people (20-80) for the first time to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects.

In Phase II clinical trials, the study drug or treatment is given to a larger group of people (100-300) to see if it is effective and to further evaluate its safety.

In Phase III studies, the study drug or treatment is given to large groups of people (1,000-3,000) to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, compare it to commonly used treatments, and collect information that will allow the drug or treatment to be used safely.

OTHER READING:
One of the pathways to successful weight control will be increasing lean muscle mass myostatin inhibition by boosting follistatin. It could boost lean muscle mass a lot (30-50%). It makes exercise far more effective.

Each pound of lean body mass, which includes skeletal muscle, burns a bit over 13 calories a day at rest. 910 calories from body fat in a week for an extra 10 pounds of muscle. It will take about 27 days to lose a pound of body fat (12 pounds per year, IF the person does not increase food/calorie intake).

So with some cardio exercise it would be a substantial help for weight control.

It would definitely make the TNT diet more effective. Any health risks possible increase in tendon injuries needs to be offset against health gains from improved weight control.

Other gene therapy and drugs can enhance endurance and longevity

Darpa is working on a variety of ways to augment soldiers.

A common enhancement that is performed now is the improvement of vision

Gene therapy has been used to enhance resistance to radiation.

The article on the muscle bound boy who naturally has the genes that inhibit myostatin.

Wikipedia on myostatin

MD Sports looks at different ways to enhance sports performance legally. They examine myostatin inhibitors.

A discussion of gene therapy for performance enhancement in sport.

“You can deliver the [gene] to neonatal animals or in utero,” says Dr. Jeffrey Medin, a biochemist who runs a gene-therapy lab at the Ontario Cancer Institute in Toronto. “As the animal ages, that [gene] gets distributed very nicely. If you wanted to provide long-term gene doping, that would be the time to start.”

But despite setbacks, gene therapy has produced far more successes than failures. “Gene therapy really hasn’t had that many negative effects,” notes Medin.

“You look at bone-marrow- transplant patients in the 1970s, and until they figured it out everybody died. Here, we’ve had two or three patients 1,100 that have had severe consequences.

If you’re looking at a new cancer drug, that’s an acceptable risk for a lot of people.”

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Brian Wang is a prolific business-oriented writer of emerging and disruptive technologies. He is known for insightful articles that combine business and technical analysis that catches the attention of the general public and is also useful for those in the industries. He is the sole author and writer of nextbigfuture.com, the top online science blog. He is also involved in angel investing and raising funds for breakthrough technology startup companies. He gave the recent keynote presentation at Monte Jade event with a talk entitled the Future for You.  He gave an annual update on molecular nanotechnology at Singularity University on nanotechnology, gave a TEDX talk on energy, and advises USC ASTE 527 (advanced space projects program). He has been interviewed for radio, professional organizations. podcasts and corporate events. He was recently interviewed by the radio program Steel on Steel on satellites and high altitude balloons that will track all movement in many parts of the USA. He fundraises for various high impact technology companies and has worked in computer technology, insurance, healthcare and with corporate finance. He has substantial familiarity with a broad range of breakthrough technologies age reversal and antiaging, quantum computers, artificial intelligence, ocean tech,  agtech, nuclear fission, advanced nuclear fission, space propulsion, satellites, imaging, molecular nanotechnology, biotechnology, medicine, blockchain, crypto and many other areas.

Source: https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2007/11/myostatin-inhibitor-trials-on-humans.html

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