Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

The Top 5 Nutrient Deficiencies on a Plant Based Diet

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

If you want to boost your health and maximize your longevity, switching to a vegan or vegetarian diet may be one of the best things you can do.

Living a plant-based diet and lifestyle is not always easy, but it does have its benefits – especially when it comes to your health.

One of the main challenges that comes along with this kind of lifestyle is learning new food sources for different nutrients.

Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

Whether you choose to follow a vegan or vegetarian diet concerns for animal welfare, the environment, or simply personal preference, you are doing your body a favor.

Research shows that plant focused diets are naturally high in fiber, low in saturated fat, and rich in phytochemicals that help to prevent a number of serious diseases. In fact, the results of an international study revealed that vegetarians are a whopping 40% less ly to develop cancer than their meat-eating counterparts.

Plant-based diets may also reduce your risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis – they also have the potential to prevent and reverse type 2 diabetes.

Common Nutritional Deficiencies

Vegan and vegetarian diets can be beneficial for your health, but completely cutting animal products might make you question where you’re getting certain nutrients.

Many people assume that getting enough protein on a plant-based diet will be a problem, but that is not necessarily true.

There are plenty of plant protein sources such as lentils, beans, chickpeas, nuts, seeds, soy products, and whole grains.

The nutritional deficiencies that are most common with vegan and vegetarian diets include:

Vitamin B12

This particular vitamin is created by a bacteria and found primarily in animal products such as dairy, meat, insects, and eggs. However, many plant foods are fortified with b12 ( nutritional yeast and some plant milks) and supplementing with a B12 vitamin is a viable option.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin! Along with calcium, it plays an essential role in maintaining bone health. Vitamin D is easily obtained from sun exposure. But remember to limit your time in direct sun, it doesn’t take much to get your vitamin D. For those with less outdoor time, such as individuals living through winter in northern climates, supplementation is also available.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

This essential fatty acid is very important for maintaining heart health. While fish and eggs are commonly thought of as rich sources, you can also find omega-3 in chia seeds, flaxseeds, walnuts, and hempseeds!

Zinc

Zinc can be found in many beans, legumes, and whole grains. But it is important to note that phytic acid found in these plants can hinder zinc absorption. However, by soaking or sprouting grains and beans before cooking, the phytic acid is reduced.

Iron

Even though iron from plants is not as easily absorbed, eating a varied diet rich in whole plant foods should ensure enough iron. You can find iron in leafy green vegetables, whole grains, lentils, peas, and dried fruits! Adding foods rich in vitamin C will also help iron absorption.

Tips for Balanced Nutrition

Fresh vegetables are some of the most nutrient-rich foods on the planet. The key to achieving total-body health and longevity is to follow a balanced diet, no matter what type of diet that may be.

Above all, however, you should be striving to include a wide variety of different foods in your diet. You may also want to consider adding certain supplements to ensure that you are getting the right amount of essential nutrients.

Look for a vegan or vegetarian multivitamin that contains Vitamin B12, iodine, and zinc, but do not take any iron supplements unless your doctor recommends it.

You can also try vegan and vegetarian protein powders to supplement your protein intake if you are concerned.

If you follow or are interested in a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle, you may need to put in more effort initially to learn where your nutrients are coming from. Your health is your greatest asset, so you should do everything you can to protect it.

Source: https://www.naturespath.com/en-us/blog/the-top-5-deficiencies-on-a-plant-based-diet/

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

A healthy diet is balanced and provides you with adequate amounts of all the essential nutrients. As a vegan or vegetarian, you may be at a higher risk of certain nutritional deficiencies, while having a lower risk of others. In this post, we summarize the most important risks together with lab tests you can take to make sure your diet is well balanced and your health is optimal.

What to Monitor on a Vegetarian/Vegan Diet

We know your diet is often more than just what you eat – it’s a deliberate choice, a lifestyle, and a part of who you are.

Food can be the key to achieving your health goals, improving your wellbeing, and making you feel a part of a movement or community. Some people do better on animal-based diets, whereas others feel better on plant-based diets.

This article will not debate the benefits of one vs. the other. Instead, it will focus on how to maximize your health on vegetarian and vegan diets.

Vegans and vegetarians are more at risk of certain nutritional deficiencies while being less at risk from others. In this post, we summarize the most important risks, and the tests you can take to make sure your diet is well balanced.

1) Iron

Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide, caused mainly by insufficient dietary intake.

Vegetarians and vegans are especially prone to iron deficiency because their diets lack heme iron [1, 2, 3]. Heme iron is only found in animal foods (meat, seafood, and poultry) and is easily absorbed.

Non-heme iron, on the other hand, is found in plants and is less-well absorbed in our gut [4].

In addition, plants are often rich in phytates and polyphenols, compounds that inhibit iron absorption.

Other nutrients that inhibit iron absorption are calcium and certain animal (found in dairy and eggs) and plant proteins (soy proteins) [4].

Studies suggest that because of all these factors, people on vegetarian diets may have iron absorption reduced by as much as 85% compared to people on omnivorous diets [5].

If you are on a vegetarian or a vegan diet, it’s a good idea to check your iron once in a while. Better yet, check your ferritin levels. While blood iron can be influenced by recent meals, ferritin is not and is, therefore, a better indicator of your body’s overall iron stores. Unsurprisingly, it is often lower than optimal in people on plant-based diets [6].

If your iron is low, here’s a good hack to help you increase it – vitamin C. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can bind iron and make sure it is well absorbed in your gut [4]. A simple way to get more vitamin C is to sprinkle some lemon juice to your salads. Also, cut back on tea, coffee, and dairy around your meals – all of these decrease the amount of iron your gut can absorb.

2) Zinc

Zinc is found in seafood, meat, eggs, and dairy. But it’s also found in whole grains, legumes, and seeds [7, 8]. So if it’s present in plant sources, why are vegetarians and vegans more ly to experience zinc deficiency [9, 10]?

Because plant sources also contain phytates (already mentioned in the iron section) that inhibit zinc absorption. Studies suggest that vegetarian diets have about 35% lower zinc absorption compared to omnivorous diets [5]. Some suggest that vegetarians may need to consume up to 50% more zinc than non-vegetarians [11].

Are your zinc levels optimal? If you notice your zinc levels decreasing over time, it may be time to make changes to your diet. You can increase your zinc levels by eating pumpkin seeds, nuts, and beans, or supplementing. Remember to always talk to your doctor before taking any supplements – they may interfere with your health condition or your treatment/medications!

3) Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is essential for brain health and making DNA and red blood cells. It is mainly found in animal products such as meat, eggs, and dairy. When their diet is low in eggs and dairy, vegetarians can become B12 deficient, while vegans have to rely on vitamin B12 supplements [12, 13].

Some amounts of vitamin B12 can be found in vegetables, algae, and mushrooms. Significant amounts have been reported in fermented vegetables, such as sauerkraut, natto, and tempeh.

However, the amount of vitamin B12 in all of these foods is either negligible or highly variable. Neither of these foods can be considered a constant and sufficient vitamin B12 source.

That is because the presence of vitamin B12 in these foods depends on bacteria that can but don’t have to be present in the soil or among the fermenting microbes [14].

The liver can store vitamin B12, so it can take years before low B12 consumption becomes full-on B12 deficiency [15]. During this time, your B12 levels may be in the normal range, but actually suboptimal for health.

You can monitor your vitamin B12 levels by doing a simple blood test. If you follow a plant-based diet or used to be plant-based for many years, you may want to tweak your diet to keep your B12 optimal.

4) Vitamin D

It’s best if you get your vitamin D from the sun. But many people don’t get enough sunlight, often due to climate or their jobs. That’s when diet becomes important.

Vitamin D is important for mood, immune function, and muscle strength [16, 17]. Although a form of vitamin D is found in plants (vitamin D2), some studies suggest it is not as potent as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), the type of vitamin D found in fish and dairy products [18].

Vegetarians, and especially vegans who don’t get enough sun, are at risk of having low vitamin D levels [19].

To increase vitamin D in your diet, opt for mushrooms [20].

5) Calcium

Calcium is a controversial nutrient. It is found in many plants, but so are oxalates and phytates that prevent calcium absorption. Low calcium decreases bone density and can lead to osteoporosis. Some studies indicate that vegans and vegetarians may be at a greater risk of having low bone mineral density [19, 21, 22].

On the other hand, there are studies that show plant sources to be adequate, and in some cases even preferred to dairy sources of calcium [23, 24, 25].

You can check your blood calcium levels – but these are often tightly maintained within a narrow range by the parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. If blood levels drop, calcium is taken from bone tissue [26]. That’s why it may be prudent to occasionally also check your bone mineral density (z-score, t-score) as you get older.

6) Iodine

Iodine is necessary for proper thyroid function. Both excessively low and excessively high intakes can lead to thyroid dysfunction. What’s interesting is that vegans fall into either of these groups, depending on their dietary choices [11].

Iodine is more commonly found in animal products than plants. Plant iodine content will depend on the iodine content of the soil. In a small-scale study, 80% of vegans and 25% of vegetarians had low iodine compared to 9% of people on an omnivorous diet [27].

However, occasionally, vegans can also have abnormally high iodine levels [28]. These cases are due to excessive seaweed consumption and can result in high TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels [29, 30].

Goitrogens, compounds found in raw cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and cauliflower, can interfere with iodine use and may negatively affect thyroid function if consumed in excessively large amounts [11].

The easiest way to check your iodine is to do a quick urine iodine test. Low iodine levels? Talk to your doctor. Iodized table salt will usually do the trick [11].

7) Omega-3 fatty acids: DHA and EPA

We’ve all heard of the many benefits of fish oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA. Studies have shown that it protects against heart disease and depression and is great for your brain function.

It turns out that vegetarians have much lower DHA and EPA intakes, while in vegans the intake of omega-3s is close to zero [31, 32, 33].

This is because DHA and EPA are mainly found in fish and seafood, with small amounts present in dairy.

While there are many studies that prove the benefits of DHA and EPA, there are no studies showing that their lack has adverse effects on vegetarians and vegans. To supplement or not – that’s currently a question open to debate [34].

It’s easy enough to get your EPA and DHA levels tested – usually as a part of an omega-3 index or omega-3/omega-6 panel that will also give you an estimated risk of heart disease. However, as already mentioned, the effect of low EPA and DHA in plant-based eaters is unknown.

How can you increase EPA and DHA in your diet? Another omega-3 acid, ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) can be converted to EPA at ~8-20% efficiency and to DHA at 0.5 – 9% efficiency [11, 35, 36, 37]. ALA is found in foods such as flax seeds, walnuts, and chia seeds.

Recently, DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae became available – and they have been shown to effectively increase blood DHA and EPA levels [38].

8) Cholesterol

Vegetarians and vegans usually have lower cholesterol levels [39]. This is great in terms of heart disease risk.

However, cholesterol is needed to produce hormones such as pregnenolone, DHEA, testosterone, and estrogens.

Pregnenolone, for example, is also known as a “neurosteroid,” because it helps with various brain functions (cognition, memory, mood, etc.) [40].

Some studies have linked lower cholesterol levels to depression and anxiety [41, 42, 43]. It’s debatable whether or not lower cholesterol leads to decreased testosterone levels [44, 45].

Low cholesterol and the associated negative effects are most often linked to malnourishment – and less to a specific type of diet [46]. If your cholesterol is on the low side, you can always boost your levels by eating more oils, avocados, nuts, and seeds [11].

9) Protein

Plant-based protein is less digestible than animal protein. Again, plants contain anti-nutrients such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors, which reduce protein absorption. That’s why vegetarians and vegans should consume more protein in total than meat-eaters [11].

BUN (Blood urea nitrogen) levels are a measure of the amount of protein in your diet.

10) Selenium

Vegetarian and vegan diets may be lower in selenium [47, 48, 49]. Plants take in selenium from the soil; thus, people around the world eat different amounts of selenium daily, depending on the concentration of the mineral in the surrounding areas [50, 51].

Selenium is important for proper immune and cognitive function. If your selenium is on the low side, increase selenium-rich foods such as Brazil nuts, oats, and shiitake and button mushrooms.

Source: https://selfhacked.com/blog/maximize-health-on-a-vegetarian-vegan-diet/

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them | Nature Knows

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

A healthy diet is balanced and provides you with adequate amounts of all the essential nutrients.

As a vegan or vegetarian, you may be at a higher risk of certain nutritional deficiencies, while having a lower risk of others.

In this post, we summarize the most important risks together with lab tests you can take to make sure your diet is well balanced and your health is optimal. What to Monitor on a Vegetarian/Vegan Diet

We know your diet is often more than just what you eat – it’s a deliberate choice, a lifestyle, and a part of who you are.

Food can be the key to achieving your health goals, improving your wellbeing, and making you feel a part of a movement or community. Some people do better on animal-based diets, whereas others feel better on plant-based diets.

This article will not debate the benefits of one vs. the other. Instead, it will focus on how to maximize your health on vegetarian and vegan diets.

Vegans and vegetarians are more at risk of certain nutritional deficiencies while being less at risk from others. In this post, we summarize the most important risks, and the tests you can take to make sure your diet is well balanced. Important Nutrients

1) Iron

Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide, caused mainly by insufficient dietary intake.

Vegetarians and vegans are especially prone to iron deficiency because their diets lack heme iron [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. Heme iron is only found in animal foods (meat, seafood, and poultry) and is easily absorbed.

Non-heme iron, on the other hand, is found in plants and is less-well absorbed in our gut [ 4 ].

In addition, plants are often rich in phytates and polyphenols, compounds that inhibit iron absorption.

Other nutrients that inhibit iron absorption are calcium and certain animal (found in dairy and eggs) and plant proteins (soy proteins) [ 4 ].

Studies suggest that because of all these factors, people on vegetarian diets may have iron absorption reduced by as much as 85% compared to people on omnivorous diets [ 5 ].

If you are on a vegetarian or a vegan diet, it’s a good idea to check your iron once in a while. Better yet, check your ferritin levels. While blood iron can be influenced by recent meals, ferritin is not and is, therefore, a better indicator of your body’s overall iron stores. Unsurprisingly, it is often lower than optimal in people on plant-based diets [ 6 ].

If your iron is low, here’s a good hack to help you increase it – vitamin C. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can bind iron and make sure it is well absorbed in your gut [ 4 ]. A simple way to get more vitamin C is to sprinkle some lemon juice to your salads. Also, cut back on tea, coffee, and dairy around your meals – all of these decrease the amount of iron your gut can absorb. 2) Zinc

Zinc is found in seafood, meat, eggs, and dairy. But it’s also found in whole grains, legumes, and seeds [ 7 , 8 ]. So if it’s present in plant sources, why are vegetarians and vegans more ly to experience zinc deficiency [ 9 , 10 ]?

Because plant sources also contain phytates (already mentioned in the iron section) that inhibit zinc absorption. Studies suggest that vegetarian diets have about 35% lower zinc absorption compared to omnivorous diets [ 5 ]. Some suggest that vegetarians may need to consume up to 50% more zinc than non-vegetarians [ 11 ].

Are your zinc levels optimal? If you notice your zinc levels decreasing over time, it may be time to make changes to your diet. You can increase your zinc levels by eating pumpkin seeds, nuts, and beans, or supplementing. Remember to always talk to your doctor before taking any supplements – they may interfere with your health condition or your treatment/medications! 3) Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is essential for brain health and making DNA and red blood cells. It is mainly found in animal products such as meat, eggs, and dairy. When their diet is low in eggs and dairy, vegetarians can become B12 deficient, while vegans have to rely on vitamin B12 supplements [ 12 , 13 ].

Some amounts of vitamin B12 can be found in vegetables, algae, and mushrooms. Significant amounts have been reported in fermented vegetables, such as sauerkraut, natto, and tempeh.

However, the amount of vitamin B12 in all of these foods is either negligible or highly variable. Neither of these foods can be considered a constant and sufficient vitamin B12 source.

That is because the presence of vitamin B12 in these foods depends on bacteria that can but don’t have to be present in the soil or among the fermenting microbes [ 14 ].

The liver can store vitamin B12, so it can take years before low B12 consumption becomes full-on B12 deficiency [ 15 ]. During this time, your B12 levels may be in the normal range, but actually suboptimal for health.

You can monitor your vitamin B12 levels by doing a simple blood test. If you follow a plant-based diet or used to be plant-based for many years, you may want to tweak your diet to keep your B12 optimal. 4) Vitamin D

It’s best if you get your vitamin D from the sun. But many people don’t get enough sunlight, often due to climate or their jobs. That’s when diet becomes important.

Vitamin D is important for mood, immune function, and muscle strength [ 16 , 17 ]. Although a form of vitamin D is found in plants (vitamin D2), some studies suggest it is not as potent as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), the type of vitamin D found in fish and dairy products [ 18 ].

Vegetarians, and especially vegans who don’t get enough sun, are at risk of having low vitamin D levels [ 19 ].

To increase vitamin D in your diet, opt for […]

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Source: https://www.natureknowsproducts.com/vegan-vegetarian-possible-deficiencies-ways-to-prevent-them/

Vegetarian Diets: Vegan, Lacto-Vegetarian, Ovo-Vegetarian, and More

Vegan/Vegetarian Possible Deficiencies & Ways To Prevent Them

The simplest definition of vegetarianism is a diet free of meat, fish, and fowl flesh. But eating habits of vegetarians cover a wide spectrum.

At one end are lacto-ovo vegetarians, who avoid animal flesh but eat eggs and milk products. At the other end are vegans, who forgo eating (and often wearing) all animal-based products, including honey.

Raw foodists are vegans who eat mainly raw fruits, vegetables, legumes, sprouts, and nuts.

There are also pescatarians, who eat fish and seafood; and lacto-vegetarians, who eat dairy products but not eggs. Fruitarians follow a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant food. Those who follow a macrobiotic diet eat mostly grains but can also eat fish. They don't necessarily identify as vegetarians.

Flexitarians refer to vegetarians who occasionally eat meat and fish.

Many adherents of vegetarianism and veganism – former Beatle Paul McCartney and actor Alec Baldwin are two celebrities who happily promote the cause — regard a flesh-free diet not only as more healthful, but as a more ethical way to live. They point to the cruel practices and the high environmental cost of raising animals for food as reasons for excluding meat from the diet.

Most Americans, however, continue to eat some form of meat or fish. Ten percent of people consider themselves to be vegetarians, according to a 2013 Gallup poll.

Most doctors and nutritionists agree that a low-fat diet high in fruits, vegetables, and nuts can be a boon to health. There’s also research suggesting that reducing or eliminating red meat from the diet may cut your risk of heart disease.

Research also has shown that a vegan or vegetarian diet may lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes. And a 2011 study found that vegetarians had lower triglycerides, glucose levels, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI).

It’s difficult to say whether being a vegetarian or a vegan lowers cancer risk. This is mainly because of the diversity within the vegetarian population.

Many studies of the cancer-vegetarian relationship conclude that diets rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, isoflavones (found in soybeans, chickpeas, peanuts, and more), and carotenoids (found in carrots, sweet potatoes, broccoli, kale, spinach, tomatoes, red peppers, and more), seem to protect against disease, including cancer, when part of a health-conscious lifestyle.

An 11-year study in Germany examined colon cancer among 1,900 vegetarians.

Researchers noted fewer deaths from cancers of the stomach, colon, and lung in study participants than in the general population — particularly among those who practiced some form of vegetarianism for at least 20 years.

They suggested, however, that other factors, body weight and amount of exercise, ly affected mortality rates in the vegetarians they studied.

A meatless diet can be healthy, but vegetarians — especially vegans — need to make sure they're getting enough vitamin B12, calcium, iron, and zinc.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics warns of the risk of vitamin B12 deficiencies in vegetarians and vegans. Vitamin B12 is found naturally only in animal products. A lack of vitamin B12 can lead to anemia and blindness. It can also cause muscle weakness, tingling, and numbness.

To counteract the increased risk, vegans should include B12 supplements, or fortified cereals and veggie burgers.

Stay tuned for more information, but B12 has been found in varying amounts in mushrooms, particularly in the outer peel, but it's too soon to consider it a food source of the vitamin.

Vegans and ovo-vegetarians, who eat eggs but not dairy, need to find foods (dark green vegetables, tofu, edamame, soy nuts, butternut squash, calcium-fortified non-dairy beverages) or supplements that compensate for the missing calcium from their diets. Absorbable calcium is critical to protect against osteoporosis, or thinning bones.

The nutrition warnings are a bit more urgent for pregnant and lactating women who are vegan. Having a vitamin B12 deficiency, particularly, has been shown to impair neurological development in infants nursed by vegetarian mothers. A lack of vitamin D and calcium also can result in bone demineralization in breastfeeding women.

Similarly, children under age 5 who are reared on vegetarian and vegan diets can suffer impaired growth.

That's because of the potential for a vitamin B12 deficiency, which can also result in anemia and vitamin D deficiency which can cause rickets.

DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid found mostly in fish, is important for optimal brain development the first 2 years of life. Consult a registered dietitian who can help design a well-planned diet that can meet all the nutritional needs.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture offers dietary guidelines for vegetarians on its web site. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is another good source for dietary recommendations.

Regardless of the kind of meat-free diet practiced, vegetarians should focus on getting enough protein, iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin B12, riboflavin, alpha-linolenic acid, and vitamin D.

Here are some ways to incorporate these nutrients into a vegetarian diet:

  • Protein: Choose tofu, edamame, tempeh, veggie burgers with 5 grams of protein or more, beans and other legumes, nuts, nut butters, eggs, and higher-protein whole grains such as quinoa, amaranth, and kamut.
  • Iron: Eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, soy-based foods, dried prunes, dried apricots, nuts, beans, legumes, and fortified whole wheat bread are good choices.
  • Calcium, which builds bone, is plentiful in cheese, yogurt, milk, edamame, tofu, almonds, sesame tahini, calcium-fortified orange juice, calcium-fortified non-dairy beverages soy or almond milk, and dark green leafy vegetables collard greens, spinach, and bok choy.
  • Zinc, which boosts the immune system, is ample in soybeans, soy milk, veggie “meats,” eggs, cheese and yogurt, fortified breakfast cereals, nuts, seeds, mushrooms, lentils, black-eyed peas, split peas, and wheat germ.
  • Vitamin B12: Soy-based beverages, some breakfast cereals, and fortified veggie “meats.” 
  • Riboflavin: Almonds, fortified cereals, cow's milk, yogurt, mushrooms, and soy milk are riboflavin-rich foods.
  • Alpha-Linolenic Acid (Omega-3): Canola oil, ground flaxseeds, flaxseed oil, walnuts, walnut oil, soybeans, and tofu are good choices.

SOURCES:

Vegetarian Times: “Vegetarianism in America,” 2008.

Stahler, C. Vegetarian Journal, 2006.

Craig, W. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, July 2009.

Barnard, N. Diabetes Care, August 2006.

Colli, J. Urologic Oncology, May-June 2006.

Key, T. BMJ, Sept. 28, 1996.

Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health: “Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12.”

Sklar, R. Clinical Pediatrics, April 1986.

Frentzel-Beyme, R. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 1, 1994.

Specker, B. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 1, 1994.

Weaver, C. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 1, 1994.

Sanders, T. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 1, 1994.

U.S. Department of Agriculture: “Vegetarian Diets.”

University of Maryland Medical Center: “Omega-3 fatty acids.”

Davis, B. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 2003.

News release, Gallup.com.

Tonstad, S. Diabetes Care, May 2009.

Rizzo, N. Diabetes Care, May 2011.

© 2018 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved. Mediterranean Diet

Source: https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/guide/vegetarian-and-vegan-diet

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